Spring 1994, Vol. XXIII, No. 1

Bulletin of the


Department of Philosophy - Occidental College, Los Angeles, California 90041, USA

Preliminary Program and General Information for the Rome Conference

Conference Directors: Eugenio Lecaldano (UniversitÓ di Roma "La Sapienza"), David Fate Norton (McGill University). E-mail addresses for each director can be found on page 8 of this Bulletin.

Conference Funding: Funding for the conference comes principally from the UniversitÓ di Roma "La Sapienza" and the Consiglio nazionale delle Ricerche. A small additional grant comes from the Faculty of Graduate Studies, McGill University.

Conference Fee: lire duecentomila or $US120

Registration: Monday, June 20, 900-1030

Conference Banquet and Tour: Registration Fee for the Congress does not include the price of the tour and banquet, but these will be offered at discounted prices.

Hotel Reservations: Professor Lecaldano reports that the special hotel rates available through Fa. Si. Congress are good only for reservations made by May 15. For details, see David Norton's letter regarding local arrangements.

Transporation: The train from the airport to the city of Rome stops at Tiburtina, which is near the area of the conference. There is also a metro stop at this location.

Scheduling: The Organizing Committee expects to divide the conference into 15 Sessions. Each session will include at least one invited speaker, and most will also include two or four submitted papers, in parallel sessions.

Sessions 1-3: Monday, June 20: Session 1 from 1045-1330 Invited Speaker; Panel, The Reception of Hume in Italy. Other sessions 1500; 1750.

Sessions 4-7: Tuesday, June 21 at 900; 1200; 1500; 1750

Sessions 8-9: Wednesday, June 22 at 900; 1200; P.M. Tour

Sessions 10-13: Thursday, June 23 at 900; 1200; 1500; 1750

Sessions 14-15: Friday, June 24, 900; 1200 (invited speaker)

Speakers and papers as of 4 April, 1994:

Julia Annas: Hume and Ancient Scepticism

Cicero Romao R. Araujo: Hume on Virtues and Rights

Alessandra Attanasio: Convention and Nature in Hume's Treatise

Elvio Baccarini: Hume and the Problem of Moral Realism

Stephen F. Barker, A. F. Griaznov: Hume and Reid on the Doctrine of Necessity

Simon Blackburn: Is Kant's Theory of Ethics a Step Backward from Hume's?

Justin Broackes, Wade L. Robison: Hume, Belief and Personal Identity

Nathan Brett, George Pappas: Hume's Theory of Abstraction

Giancarlo Carabelli, Franco Restaino, Antonio Santucci: Hume in Italy in the Last Fifty Years

Jean-Pierre Clero: Aspects dynamiques de la theorie des passions chez Hume

M. Jamie Ferreira, Anne Jaap Jacobson: Common Sense in the Natural History of Religion

Peter Fosl, Doreen Silver: Hume's Pyrrhonism and the Legacy of Sextus Empiricus

Don Garrett, John Biro: Laws of Nature and Competing Proofs in Hume's "Of Miracles"

George di Giovanni: Hume, Jacobi, and Common Sense: An Episode of the Reception of Hume in Germany at the Time of Kant

Jean Hampton, Clarence Johnson: Does Hume have an Instrumental Conception of Practical Reason?

Marcia L. Homiak, Maria J. Montes: Does Hume have a Theory of Virtue? Some Observations on Character and Reasoning in Hume and Aristotle

Dale Jacquette, Marina Frasca-Spada: Hume's Phenomenal Atomism in the Inkspot Experiment

Michael Karlsson, Jacqueline Taylor: Rational Ends: Humean and Non-Humean Considerations

Christine M. Korsgaard, Charlotte Brown: Does Hume Believe in the Hypothetical Imperative?

Manfred Kuehn: Reid on Hume's Theory of Moral Sense

Thomas M. Lennon: Hume, Bayle, Jurieu, and Nicole

Jane McIntyre: Passion and Moral Sentiment: Asymmetries between Hume and Hutcheson

Tito Magri: Hume and our Motivation to be Rational and Moral

Emilio Mazza: Hume and Huet

J. P. Monteiro: Hume on Single Experiments

Domenico Musti: Hume e la popolositÓ delle nazioni antiche

David Fate Norton: Hume and Moral Scepticism

Thomas Olshewsky, Joseph Ellin: Moral Scepticism in Sextus and Hume

David Owen: Hume on Demonstration

Luca Parisoli: A New Hume in the James Gregory Painting

Elizabeth Radcliffe, Sherryl Kuhlman: Passion, Pleasure, and the Reasonableness of Ends

Restaino, Franco: Hume in Italy

Santucci, Antonio: Hume in the 19th and 20th Centuries

Robert Shaver: Justice between Unequals

Kiyoshi Shimokawa, Frederick G. Whelan: Hume's Concept of Property: A Conceptual Innovation and its Connections with his Theory of Causation

Corliss Swain: Hume's Vindication of Induction

Fabio Todesco: Scepticism as a Passion of the Soul

Michael Welborne. W. E. Morris: Hume on Testimony

John P. Wright: The Slave of Passions: Hume on Religion and Morality

Paola Zanardi: Hume and Trenchard

Call for Papers: Hume in Park City, 1995

The 1995 Hume Conference will be held in Park City, Utah. Don Garrett (University of Utah), Ted Morris (University of Cincinnati) and Charlotte Brown (Illinois Wesleyan) are the conference co-directors. The dual themes are "Reason and Sympathy." The deadline for submissions is November 1, 1994. Only completed papers should be submitted (no abstracts). Persons interested in serving as commentators should notify the secretary-treasurer prior to November 1, 1994. Papers should be no more than thirty minutes reading length with self-references deleted for blind reviewing; the author's name should appear only on a front cover sheet. Papers may be in English, French or German, but an abstract in English is required for all papers. Submit papers and abstracts in triplicate to Professor Saul Traiger, Executive Secretary of the Hume Society, Department of Philosophy, Occidental College, Los Angeles, CA 90041 USA.

New Program Chairs for APA Sessions

The Executive Committee has appointed new program chairs for the Hume Society's group meetings at the divisional meetings of the American Philosophical Association. Program Chairs are responsible for organizing Hume Society sessions at the divisional meetings. The new appointees are: Eastern Division: Simon Blackburn (University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill); Central Division: Louis Loeb (University of Michigan); Pacific Division: Rachel Cohon (Stanford University). Terms start with the meetings in the 1994-95 academic year. The Hume Society thanks outgoing program Chairs, Geoffrey Sayre McCord (Eastern), Charlotte Brown (Central), and Elizabeth Radcliffe (Pacific).

Call for Papers: Rousseau on Arts and Politics:

The North American Association for the Study of Jean-Jacques Rousseau seeks papers or proposals for papers on the topic Rousseau on Arts and Politics: Autour de la Lettre d'Alembert, for presentation at its biennial colloquium to be held June 1-4, 1995 at Wabash College, Crawfordsville, IN. Papers may be in English or French. While it is anticipated that Rousseau's Letter to D'Alembert will be a major focus of the colloquium, participants are also invited to offer papers on topics such as Rousseau's aesthetics or on works such as De L'Imitation Theatrale.

Please submit papers or suggestions by September 15, 1994 to:

Melissa A. Butler, Chair, Department of Political Science, Wabash College, Crawfordsville, IN 47933. E-Mail: ButlerM@Wabash.edu; Fax: (317) 364-4295

Call for Papers: Eighteenth-Century Scottish Studies Society Annual Conference

On the occasions of the 250th anniversary of the 1745 Rebellion and the quincentenary of King's College, Aberdeen, ECSSS and the University of Aberdeen will hold the first major conference to focus on Jacobitism in its relation to the Scottish Enlightenment and eighteenth-century Scottish culture generally.

Beside an unprecedented concentration of leading Jacobite and Enlightenment scholars from around the world, the conference will include special musical entertainment, a walking tour of Old Aberdeen, an excursion to a number of outstanding castles and Jacobite houses in the Northeast, and much more. Among the many groups and organizations that are lending their support to this conference are the Association for Scottish Literary Studies and the Thomas Reid Institute for Research into Cultural Studies and the Humanities.

Papers are invited on all relevant topics, including: cultural aspects of the '45 Jacobite art, music and literature; Jacobite influences in Scotland's universities and in the Enlightenment; Jacobite political economy; the religious dimensions of Jacobitism; the Jacobite component in eighteenth-century notions of Scottish and Gaelic cultural identity; the role of Jacobitism in the culture of the Northeast and in Highland culture; Jacobitism's presence in urban and rural settings and in different social classes; the nature of opposition to Jacobitism; and Scottish Jacobitism in its British and international contexts.

Proposals for papers of 20-25 minutes should include a title, 300-world abstract, and abbreviated (one page) c.v., mailed or faxed to Michael Fry, c/o Richard Sher, Executive Secretary-ECSSS, New Jersey Institute of Technology, Newark, NJ 07102, USA; fax: 201-565-0586, or Joan Pittock, Director-Centre for Cultural History, University of Aberdeen, Humanity Manse, OldAberdeen, UK; fax: 0224-272515. The official deadline for proposals is 1 October 1994, but we expect this conference to fill up very quickly and urge those interested in presenting papers to submit their proposals as soon as possible.

Publication Notices

Annette C. Baier, Moral Prejudices: Essays on Ethics Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1994.

David Hume's essay Of Moral Prejudices offers a spirited defense of "all the most endearing sentiments of the hearts, all the most useful biases and instincts, which can govern a human creature," against the onslaught of philosophers who would, on the pretext of reforming prejudices and errors, endeavor after perfection. Following Hume's example, Annette Baier delivers an appeal for our fundamental moral notions to be governed not by rules and codes but by trust: a moral prejudice. Along the way, she gives us the best feminist philosophy there is.

In this enterprise, Baier takes her inspiration from Hume, whom she calls the "woman's moral philosopher" because he held that "corrected (sometimes rule-corrected) sympathy, not law-discerning reason, is the fundamental moral capacity," a quality normally asssociated with the feminine rather than the masculine. Male moral philosophers have consistently avoided the whole question of love, for example. Baier entreats us to reject both the Platonic idea that we have a true self and the Kantian idea that it is rational to be moral, a notion that makes obligation central to ethics.

Baier's topics range from violence to love, from cruelty to justice, and are linked by a preoccupation with vulnerability and inequality of vulnerability, with trust and distrust of equals, with cooperation and isolation. Throughout, she is concerned with the theme of women's roles. In this provocative exploration of the implications of trusting to trust rather than proscription, Baier interweaves anecdote and autobiography with readings of Hume and Kant to produce an entertaining, challenging, and highly readable book.

John Christian Laursen, The Politics of Skepticism in the Ancients, Montaigne, Hume, and Kant. Leiden: E.J. Brill, 1992.

This book brings out the profound influence of the tradition of philosophical skepticism on political thought. It shows that many of the root ideas of liberalism in early modern thought were a product of engagement with the skeptical tradition. The book begins with the first extended discussion in the literature of the political implications of ancient skepticism, asking the question, "Can Skeptics Live a Skeptical Politics?". The following sections explore the influence of skepticism on the political thought of Montaigne, Hume, and Kant. The case is made that some forms of liberalism derived from these thinkers have been historically closely bound up with skepticism. Teachers of the history of political thought, political theory, and political philosophy will use this book as a guide to teaching a new history of political thought. Liberal theorists will use it to help them return to their roots in a philosophical tradition that once provided them with valuable arguments, and might still do so today.

R. S. Woolhouse, Descartes, Spinoza, Leibniz: The Concept of Substance in Seventeenth Century Metaphysics, N.Y.: Routledge, 1994

This text introduces and explains the work of three important philosophers of the 17th century: Rene Descartes, Benedict Spinoza and Gottfried Leibniz. R. S. Woolhouse provides a systematic treatment of the central metaphysical views of these important and interrelated philosophers, considering their areas of agreement and disagreement. He argues that these thinkers are bestunderstood in relation to the concept of substance. Reaching beyond the conventional classification of the three as "The Rationalists," Woolhouse explores their accounts of what is real and how this lies at the heart of their philosophies. He focuses especially on a demonstration of how these three key philosophers provided the conceptual foundation to the 17th-century science of mechanics.

Edwin Curley, ed. and trans. A Spinoza Reader, Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1994

This anthology of the work of Baruch de Spinoza (1632-1677) presents the text of Spinoza's masterwork, the Ethics, in what is now the standard translation by Edwin Curley. Also included are selections from other works by Spinoza, chosen by Curley to make the Ethics easier to understand, and a substantial introduction that gives an overview of Spinoza's life and the main themes of his philosophy.

Kenneth F. Barber and Jorge J.E. Gracia, eds. Individuation and Identity in Early Modern Philosophy Albany: State University of New York Press, July 1994.

Philosophy in the sixteenth through eighteenth centuries has traditionally been characterized as being primarily concerned with epistemological issues. This book is not intended to overturn this characterization but rather to balance it through an examination of equally important metaphysical, or ontological, positions held, explicitly or implicitly, by philosophers in this period. Major philosophers whose views are discussed in this book include Descartes, Malebranche, Spinoza, Locke, Berkeley, Hume, Leibniz, Wolff, and Kant. In addition, the contributions of minor Cartesians, especially Regis and Desgabets, are analyzed in a separate chapter. Although the views of the early modern philosophers on individuation and identity have been discussed before, these discussions have usually been treated as asides in a larger context. This book is the first to concentrate on the problems of individuation and identity in early modern philosophy and to trace their philosophical development through the period in a coherent way.

Information Sought on Hume Portrait

Ralf Selbach, a doctoral student in Germany, is working on an essay on an 18th-Century vase that shows portraits of Immanuel Kant and David Hume. He asks for assistance in finding the original portrait of Hume that was the model for the vase. To his knowledge it is none of the well-known pictures or engravings of David Hume. He will send a xeroxed photo of the vase to those who think they may be of assistance. Write to Ralf Selbach, Osseitzkyring 18, D-3000, Hanover 91, GERMANY.

Editing Hume at the ASECS

A session entitled "Editing Hume" was held at the recent meeting of the American Society for Eighteenth Century Studies. The session was organized and chaired by Mark Box, University of Alaska. Presentations were, in order, by David Fate Norton, who discussed his efforts to determine Hume's orthographical and punctuational preferences at the time he was writing A Treatise of Human Nature, and how his findings are likely to be reflected in the forthcoming Clarendon Edition of the Treatise; David Raynor, who discussed Hume's correspondence, and his efforts to locate still more Hume letters. These efforts have recently turned up several of Hume's more personal letters; Tom Beauchamp, who spoke about the larger prospects of publishing Hume, including his hope for a CD ROM version of all editions of Hume's philosophical, political, and literary works; and (in absentia) M. A. Stewart, who discussed his work on the Dialogues, and especially his findings about the chronology of the composition of this work. The occasion included the first public announcement thatwhat for some time was expected to be the Princeton Edition of Hume's works will in fact be the Clarendon edition. Of course, the Clarendon Press is also to publish the edition of the complete correspondence that David Raynor is editing.

Hume-L by Dorothy Coleman

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Colin and Alisa Turbayne International Berkeley Prize Essay Competition

Professor and the late Mrs. Colin Turbayne established an International Berkeley Essay Prize competition in conjunction with the Philosophy Department at the University of Rochester.

The next deadline for submitting papers is November 1, 1994. Submissions on any aspect of Berkeley's philosophy are welcome. Essays should be new and unpublished and should be written in English and not exceed 5,000 words in length. All references to Berkeley should be to Luce/Jessop, and a MLA or similar standard for notes should be followed. Submissions will be judged by members of a review board selected by the Department of Philosophy at the University of Rochester. The winner will be announced March 1, 1995 and will receive a prize of $2,000. Submissions should be sent to: Professor Richard Feldman, Chair, Department of Philosophy, University of Rochester, Rochester, NY 14627-0078.

Philosophical Books 1994 Review Competition

Philosophical Books invites submissions for the 1994 Review Competition. The prize is 250 Pounds, and the winning entry will be published in Philosophical Books. The review, which should be 3,000-4,000 words in length, should deal with an important book published in 1993 or 1994. It should give a clear indication of the main contents of the book, and should engage it in critical discussion. All entries should be headed ``1994 Philosophical Books Review Competition'' and sent to: Professor Eugene Mills, Department of Philosophy, Virginia Commonwealth University, 915 W. Franklin Street, Richmond, VA 23284-2015. The deadline for entries is May 15, 1994. Younger philosophers (including postgraduate students) are encouraged to apply.

New Members

The Hume Society is pleased to welcome the following new members.

Austen, Andrea; York University, Canada

Caffentzis, Constantine; University of Southern Maine

Farrier, Cameron; Oklahoma City

Fields, Lloyd; University of Dundee

Fujita, Shogo; Osaka, Japan

Hayden, Patrick; Chicago, IL

Hoekstra, Steven; Wheaton, IL

Koistinen, Olli; University of Turku

Lenz, John; Brown University

Lind, Marcia; Duke University

Millgram, Elijah; Princeton University

Moore, John A.; Calif. State Polytech, Pomona, CA

Pfister, Abigail; Parma Hts., Ohio

Richey, Lance; Marquette University

Roth, Mihaela; Chicago, IL

Sturgeon, Nicholas; Cornell University

Suderman, Jeff; University of Western Ontario

Thiel, Udo; Australian National University

Tilmans, Anthony; Marietta, Georgia

Valls, Andrew; University of Pittsburgh

Wallace, Kathleen; Hofstra University

Waxman, Wayne; New School for Social Research

Williams, Christopher; University of Nevada-Reno

Wrigley, Michael; Centro De Logica

The Philosophical Calendar

The following conference announcements were compiled by the Conference of Philosophical Societies, John A. Loughney, President, Nancy Simco, Calendar Editor. We thank the Conference for permission to reprint these announcements.

JULY 1994

8-11 Symposium on the Philosophy of F.H. Bradley, University of Dundee. Contact: Guy Stock, Philosophy, U. of Dundee, Dundee DD1 4HN, Scotland

18-23 Sixth International Leibniz Congress, Hannover. Contact:Gottfried-Wilhelm-Leibniz-Gesellschaft, Niedersachsische Landesbibliothek, Waterloostr. 8, D-3000 Hannover, Germany


20-30 International Association for Greek Philosophy, Greece. Theme: Aristotelian Political Philosophy. Contact: K. Boudouris, 5 Simonidou Str., 174 56 Alimos, Greece


26-Oct.1 International Fichte Congress, Jena. Theme: Die Philosophie Fichtes-200 Jahre Wissenschaftslehre. Contact: Wolfgang Schrader, Universitat-GH-Siegen, Adolf-Reichwein-Strasse, 5900 Siegen, Germany

28-30 Conference: The Continuing Philosophical, Political and Legal Import of Kant's ``Toward Perpetual Peace''. Contact: Kevin Paul Geiman, Philosophy, Valparaiso U., Valparaiso, IN 46383


7-9 Sartre Society of North America, DePaul University. Contact: Ronald Aronson, Interdisciplinary Studies, Wayne State U., Detroit, MI 48202

13-16 Philosophy of Science Association, New Orleans. Contact: Richard M. Burian, Ctr. for the Study of Science & Public Policy, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA 24061-0247 <rmburian@vtms.bitnet>

14-16 Society for Ancient Greek Philosophy, Society for the Study of Islamic Philosophy and Science, and International Society for Neoplatonic Studies, Binghamton. Theme: Multicultural Dimensions of Ancient and Medieval Philosophy. Contact: A. Preus, Philosophy, Binghamton U., Binghamton, NY 13902-6000 <apreus@bingvmb.bitnet>

21-23 Second Annual Conference of the National Coalition of Independent Scholars, Oakland, California. Theme: Independent Scholars: Finding an Audience. Contact: Alice Marquis, 8963 Caminito Fresco, La Jolla, CA 92037

26-29 American Society for Aesthetics, Charleston, South Carolina. Contact: Kathleen Higgins, Philosophy, U. of Texas, Austin, TX 78712

28-29 Central States Philosophical Association, Vanderbilt University. Papers due: July 1, 1994. Contact: John F. Post, Philosophy, Vanderbilt U., Nashville, TN 37235 <postxxjf@ctrvax.vanderbilt.edu>

Electronic Texts: Some Internet Resources

The following list of e-text resources was taken from a document prepared by Eric Palmer, a member of the American Philosophical Associations Committee on Electronic Texts. The full document can be found on the American Philosophical Association's gopher server, apa.oxy.edu.

Contacts and short descriptions of the sources are provided to encourage individual investigation: these sources contain a great variety of texts, some directly and many tangentially related to philosophers' concerns. Some of these resources offer texts at no charge, some at minimal charge, and some operate for profit.

ARTFL: American and French Research on the Treasury of the French Language. A cooperative project between the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique and The University of Chicago, ARTFL is a database of 2000 French language texts in literature, philosophy, and the sciences, that was originally constructed for lexicographical research. The database, which includes many texts of philosophical interest (see below), is available to researchers at subscribing institutions via the internet, modem, or in CD ROM format . ARTFL texts are available for use in these formats, and may not be exported to other machines. ARTFL Project, Dept. Romance Languages and Literatures, University of Chicago, 1050 East 59th Street, Chicago IL 60637 USA, (312) 702-8488, or mark@tira.uchicago.edu

Books in Philosophy 20 titles of classics in Western philosophy, and growing. Most of the Books in Philosophy catalog is incorporated into section 4 of this guide. Books in Philosophy, 237 N. Michigan St., South Bend, IN 46601. (800) 234-2726.

CPET, and the Georgetown Center for Texts and Technology "The Center for Text and Technology is a non-profit project of the Academic Computer Center of Georgetown University. Our primary mission is the creation and dissemination of electronic versions of important documents for the enhancement of scholarship in the humanities and social sciences." Texts are available at low cost. The Center also maintains a large catalog of electronic resources (CPET: Catalog of projects in electronic texts), including a list of electronic texts in philosophy, that may be contacted via gopher, through Valdosta, or telnet. The host is "GUVAX3.GEORGETOWN.EDU" (type "cpet" at login). For further information: Michael Neuman, Director, Georgetown Center for Text and Technology, Academic Computer Center, 238 Reiss Science Building, Georgetown University, Washington, DC 20057, Phone: (202) 687-6096, Fax: (202) 687-6003, or neuman@guvax.georgetown.edu

HNSOURCE "HNSOURCE is maintained by Academic Computer Service and the Department of History of the University of Kansas to function as the central gopher for historians. HNSOURCE provides information, announcements, guides, references, and ready access to useful Internet sites -- FTP sites, WAIS sites, on-line library catalogues, and other gophers. HNSOURCE is affiliated with and supported by the Division of Electronic Resources of THE HISTORY NETWORK. To reach HNSOURCE: TELNET hnsource.cc.ukans.edu login: history no password required."

InteLex Corporation Editions of classics of western philosophy, and political theory. These texts are stored integrally with FolioViews text analysis software, which is included with each text purchased. Most of the InteLex catalog is incorporated into section 4 of this guide.

Box 1827, Clayton, Georgia 30525-1827

Okita Denshi Giken Japanese distributor of Inter Editions Wittgenstein texts. Suginami-corp 101, Kamiogi 4-4-5, Suginami-ku, Tokyo 167, Japan

Oxford Text Archive "Offers scholars long term storage and maintenance of electronic versions of the texts which constitute the raw material of literary and linguistic scholarship." Cooperative repository, hundreds of humanistic texts in many languages. Contact archive@vax.oxford.ac.uk, or Oxford Text Archive, Oxford University Computing Service, 13 Banbury Road, Oxford OX2 6NN, England

Project Libellus "Whereas most vendors of classical materials place restrictions on their use, either by placing them under copyright or by the application of a licensing agreement, or both, the purpose of project Libellus is to make available, for any use whatever, classical texts and associated materials in electronic form." Available by gopher or anonymous FTP at: ftp.u.washington.edu. The directory is: /public/libellus, or: /pub/user-supported/libellus. Log in as ``anonymous'' or ``ftp'', and send your e-address as password, as you normally would.

Perseus Project An interactive database on ancient Greek culture. Contains "a Greek-English lexicon, the majority of Greek texts and translations from the classical period and c. 30,000 images." Contact joel@ikaros.harvard.edu

Scientists on Disk A growing resource of primary material for recent history of science (Proceedings and Transations of the Royal Society, etexts of Darwin, Oppenheimer, Rowland, von Neumann). Accessible through the 'gopher' server (gopher hs.jhu.edu), or via telnet on your computer account, through the command "telnet gopher.hs.jhu.edu". For further information, contact editors@servo.hs.jhu.edu

Thesaurus Linguae Graecae All extant literature, Homer to 6th Century C.E, including some translations. Available by license on compact discs from TLG Project, University of California at Irvine, Irvine, CA 92717; or tlg@uci.bitnet Further information may be obtained by goperhing to gopher-server.cwis.uci.edu