Fall 1994, Vol. XXIII, No. 2

Bulletin of the


Department of Philosophy - Occidental College, Los Angeles, California 90041, USA

Arrivederci Roma

For those of us who attended the Twenty-First Hume Conference at the Università di Roma "La Sapienza," saying goodbye after five days of excellent papers, stimulating discussion, and wonderful hospitality was not easy. On the final day of the conference David Fate Norton summed up the sentiments of attendees. His remarks are reproduced on page 7 of this Bulletin.

Twenty-Second Hume Conference - Don't Miss it!

Park City, Utah will be the site of the Twenty-Second Hume Conference, to be held July 25-29, 1995 under the sponsorship of the University of Utah. Park City is a cosmopolitan mountain resort community that serves as the home for North America's most prestigious film festival (the United States Film Festival, founded by local resident Robert Redford), and is also the leading contender to host the 2002 Winter Olympics. It is located approximately thirty minutes from Salt Lake City, in the Wasatch Mountains.

"Reason and Sympathy" are the dual themes of the conference, which is being co-directed by Charlotte Brown (Illinois Wesleyan University), Don Garrett (University of Utah), and William E. Morris (University of Cincinnati). The

deadline for submission of papers is November 1, 1994. Individuals interested in commenting on a paper or chairing a session should contact either Professor Brown or Professor Morris. Members of the Hume Society will soon receive further details and registration information by mail. For more information contact Don Garrett, Department of Philosophy,

OSH 338, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT 84112.

Fax: (801) 585-5195; Phone: (801) 581-8749.

Hume Sessions at Regional APA Meetings

This year's Hume Society session at the Eastern Division Meetings of the American Philosophical Association is "Hume, God, and Realism." The speakers are Edward Craig (Churchill College, Cambridge) and Galen Strawson (Jesus College, Oxford). The session is scheduled for Thursday, December 29, from 6:30 to 8:30 p.m. in the Nantucket room of the Boston Marriott Copley Place. Rob Shaver (Manitoba) will be the speaker for the Central Division session in 1995. The commentator will be Sigrun Svavarsdottir (New York University). Title and other details will be available soon, as will information about the Pacific Division session.

Call for Conference Site Suggestions

The Hume Society's annual conferences alternate between North American and non-North American locations. The Society welcomes suggestions and invitations for North American conference sites for 1997 and 1999, and other sites for 2000. The 1995, 1996 and 1998 sites have been set. Informal suggestions should be made to the President or the Executive Secretary. A formal invitation requires a letter from a dean or provost addressed to the President of the Hume Society. Such letters are usually solicited by the Executive Committee after discussion of informal suggestions.

News from Members

Claudia Schmidt has accepted anoffer from the University of Iowa to pursue further graduate work in philosophy, and is looking forward to taking a respite from the job market while completing her manuscript on Hume.

Ira Singer is now at Northwestern University, having moved from Johns Hopkins. His new address is Department of Philosophy, Brentano Hall, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL 60208-1315.

Andrew Valls has been appointed Instructor, Department of Political Science, Morehouse College, Atlanta, GA. Valls will teach political theory on a regular appointment as he continues to work with Frederick Whelan and Annette Baier on his dissertation, "Hume and the Foundations of Liberalism," which he plans to defend next spring.

Recent Articles and Reviews

Please report your publications and presentations to the secretary-treasurer and they will be included in the next issue of the Bulletin.

Garrett, D. "A Representation of Causation and Hume's Two Definitions of Cause" Nous, 27, 2 (June 1993): 167-90.

Immerwahr. J. "Hume's Dissertation on the Passions" Journal of the History of Philosophy, 31, 2 (April 1994) 225-40.

Russell, P. "Epigram, Pantheists, and Freethought in Hume's Treatise: A Study in Esoteric Communication" Journal of the History of Ideas, 54, (October 1993) 659-73.

Sayre-McCord, G. "On Why Hume's 'General Point of View' Isn't Ideal -- and Shouldn't Be." Social Philosophy and Policy, 11, 1 (Winter 1994) pp. 202-228.

Streminger, G. "Review of M.A. Stewart, ed., Studies in the Philosophy of the Scottish Enlightenment" Archiv für Geschichte der Philosophie 75.

Traiger, S. "Humean Testimony" Pacific Philosophical Quarterly, 74, 2 (June 1993) 135-49.

Call for Papers: Conference on Hume and 18th-century America

Co-directors Dorothy Coleman and Wade Robison are pleased to announce a call for papers for an interdisciplinary conference on the theme of ``Hume and 18th-Century America'' to take place at the College of William and Mary April 6-8, 1995. Papers on any aspect of Hume's connection with 18th-Century American thought are welcome.

Among the several organizations supporting this conference are the Eighteenth-Century Scottish Studies Society, the Hume Society, the Institute for Early American History and Culture, and the Commonwealth Center for the Study of American Culture.

Papers should be no more than forty minutes reading length with self-references deleted for blind reviewing; the author's name should appear only on a front cover sheet. Submissions should be accompanied by a brief abstract. Proposals will also be considered if accompanied by a vitae, although the program committee will give preferential consideration to blindly reviewed, completed papers. Please send triplicate copies of submissions to Professor Dorothy Coleman, Department of Philosophy, College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, VA 23187.

E-mail: dpcole@mail.wm.edu. Submissions must be postmarked by November 1, 1994. Early submissions are encouraged.

Call for Papers: Southern Conference on British Studies

The Southern Conference on British Studies solicits proposals for papers to be presented at its 1995 meeting, to be held on November 8-11 in New Orleans, Louisiana, in conjunction with that of the Southern Historical Association.

The SCBS construes British studies widely and invites participation by scholars in all areas of British history and culture, including the Empire and Commonwealth as well as the home islands. Interdisciplinary approaches are strongly encouraged. Proposals may consist of individual papers or entire sessions for the program. Sessions should include two or - preferably - three papers related to a common theme (not necessarily bound by the usual chronological framework). If possible, participants in any given session will come from both sexes.

For each paper proposed, please submit an abstract of two to three hundred words, indicating the thesis of the paper, the sources and methodology employed in the research for it, and how it enhances or expands knowledge of its subject. Papers should be planned to have a reading time of twenty to twenty-five minutes. Also, please submit a curriculum vitae.

Proposals should be sent, to arrive by October 3, 1994, to Dr. Jerry H. Brookshire, SCBS Program Chair, Department of History, Middle Tennessee State University, Murfreesboro, Tennessee 37132. Fax: 615-898-5907.

New Supply of McGill Hume Studies

David Fate Norton has donated a new supply of McGill Hume Studies to the Hume Society. We now have several boxes of the paperback edition, and one box of hardcover copies. The volume, which contains papers from the McGill Bicentennial Hume Conference in 1976, is edited by David Fate Norton, Nicholas Capaldi, and Wade L. Robison. To order a copy, use the order form enclosed with this issue of the Bulletin, or send a check for $7 U.S. (or its equivalent in your currency) for paper, $15 for hardcover, to the Executive Secretary-Treasurer. Please pass on copies of the order form to your library.

Streminger's David Hume: Sein Leben und sein Werk, reviewed by Annette Baier

Gerhard Streminger, David Hume: Sein Leben und sein Werk. Paderborn, München, Wien, Zurich: Ferdinand Schöningh, 1994. 714 pp.

Author, publisher, and the Humboldt-Stiftung who subsidized the research for and the publication of this splendid book, have occasion for pride, and the rest of us, especially those who can read German, occasion for rejoicing. In particular the Hume Society should rejoice in a likely influx of German-speaking new members, for Streminger's book introduces the reader to Hume in such a way that they, like those who met Hume in his lifetime, will, whatever their preconceptions, come to be very fond of him. Streminger himself obviously is. We in the Hume Society know him as the author of several English articles about Hume, some in Hume Studies. He teaches at the University of Graz, Austria, and in 1981 co-authored, with Ernst Toppitsch, a slim little book on Hume, in which Toppitsch provided the chapter on religion. Now we have Streminger's own big fat book on Hume, and he says plenty about religion.

Even those who do not read much German (and Streminger's German seems unusually lucid) may want this book on their shelves, if for no other reason than for its splendid illustrations. There are 16 color plates, including fine reproductions not just of four Hume portraits but also Ramsay's of Hutcheson and Raeburn's of Robertson, Blair, and Ferguson. And there are color plates of a painting of the battle of Culloden and of Riddle's Close (both from "Sammlung Streminger") and of M. B. Olivier's "Tea in the English Manner" (from the Louvre). In addition there are 39 black and white reproductions of all sorts of interesting things. (I especially appreciated the engravings of Cologne, Nurnburg, Frankfurt, Turin, more or less as Hume saw them as military secretary.)

So is this just a more lavishly illustrated German version of Mossner? No. Although of course indebted to Mossner's book (and often echoing his chapter headings and subheadings), it goes beyond it in several ways. First, there is an attempt to give summaries of absolutely all Hume's publications, all the essays, one by one, and the History, volume by volume. (The summaries are, naturally enough, uneven in quality. I found the summary of Treatise Bk. III positively misleading on the natural virtues.) Secondly, Streminger has found a hitherto unnoticed Hume publication, a 1768 review in French of Horace Walpole's book, Historical Doubts, in a journal edited by Edward Gibbon, who may have had some input into the review. Since it is Gibbon who refers to Hume as the author, and since Walpole had attacked Hume's treatment of Richard III, in The History of England, we have here a rare case of Hume publishing a reply to a critic. Thirdly, and most importantly, Streminger goes into more depth than Mossner in describing the cultural context of Hume's thought, in particular the climate of religious opinion and sentiment in Britain. Not just John Knox and the Whole Duty of Man, but sermons given at Chirnside are quoted verbatim, and, among Hume attackers, Wesley as well as Warburton are given close attention. This book presents Hume not just in his setting in intellectual history, but in a broader cultural setting, and treats him as a cultural reformer, as well as a deep thinker.

Would that we had such a book in English! Would that someone translate it forthwith! Would that some wealthy and wise foundation and some painstaking publisher bring out an English version as handsome as the original! Meanwhile, bravo Gerhard Streminger! And bravo the Schöningh-Verlag! And bravo the Humboldt-Stiftung! Scholars are bound to find small inaccuracies, as they always do, and readers of Hume will query, as I do myself, the emphasis in some of the summaries. But Streminger's is a huge achievement, and his book is bound to be influential.

Annette Baier

University of Pittsburgh

Other Publications

Hume and Hume's Connexions, M.A. Stewart and John P. Wright, eds. Edinburgh Studies in Intellectual History, Edinburgh University Press xvi prelims index 255pp 4 inus, November, 1994

Presenting significant new research on the moral and religious philosophy of David Hume, Hume and Hume's Connexions illustrates the importance of intellectual context in understanding the work and career of one of the eighteenth century's most important thinkers. Distinctive in its reappraisal of the influence of John Locke, Francis Hutcheson and others, it examines how Hume reacted to, and in turn, affected, other thinkers whose views, like his own, were bound up with specific philosophical, theological and scientific traditions and commitments.

The essays fall into three broad groups. The first looks at Hume's work as a moral philosopher, re-evaluating his place in the sceptical, utilitarian and natural-law traditions. The second reassesses his work in moral psychology and the science of mind in light of new research on 17th and 18th-century sources. A final group, which examines Hume's critique of religion in its literary, historical and philosophical aspects, includes an edited transcription of a significant new manuscript on the problem of evil.

Faith, Scepticism and Personal Identity, J.J. MacIntosh and H.A. Meynell, eds. University of Calgary Press, 1994.

This book consists of a number of essays on the philosophical views of Terence Penelhum, with a reply by Penelhum himself. Penelhum's three major philosophical interests are represented here: the philosophy of religion, the philosophy of David Hume, and philosophical issues concerning personal identity.

Papers on the philosophy of religion discuss the difficulty - indeed the apparent impossibility - of perceiving God (Kai Nielsen), the nature of religious experience (John Hick), the limits of open-mindedness in matters of faith (Basil Mitchell), and the possibility of a new proof of God's existence (Hugo Meynell).

The essays on Humean topics (Annette Baier, Alisdair MacIntyre, Anthony Flew, and David Fate Norton) address topics such as Hume's philosophy of religion, Hume on miracles, the notion of factual necessity, and the consistency of Hume's scepticism.

The other papers in the volume deal chiefly with the question of identity (William Lyons, Andrew Brennan, Geoffrey Madell, R.T. Herbert, and J.J. MacIntosh) and investigate the nature of persons and the possibility (or impossibility) of resurrection.

These essays are challenging - the contributors disagree among themselves, as well as with Penelhum - and Penelhum's characteristically careful, detailed, and cogent responses to each ensure that genuine progress is made in each of the central areas under consideration. The book will be of interest to specialists and non-specialists alike.

Editor's Note: See the University of Calgary's flier, enclosed with this issue, for a 20% discount on this volume.

New Hume Archives Internet Gopher Site

The Hume Archives gopher site aims to be a repository of texts in Hume scholarship covering the period from the 18th century to the present. Since Hume's first publication in 1739, thousands of books, articles, and reviews on Hume's writings have appeared. The vast majority of these discussions are, of course, out of print and many can be accessed only through library special collections. The initial focus of the Hume Archives is on making available the text files of 18th century replies to Hume's philosophical writings, such as book reviews. The texts presently included in the Hume Archives are the review of the Treatise in the History of the Works of the Learned (1739), the review of the second Enquiry in the Monthly Review (1752), and the reviews of "Of Suicide" in the Monthly Review (1784) and the Gentleman's Magazine (1784). The Archives also contain a repository of recent messages posted on the Hume-L Listserv.

Given the nature of the Internet as a forum for disseminating vast amounts of information, there is no inherent restriction to the quantity of texts that can be included in the Hume Archives. The main practical restriction involves acquiring the text files themselves, and this requires the effort of scanning or typing a book or article into the computer. There is also the legal restriction that the original texts must either be in the public domain (over 75 years old), or authorized for use by the copyright holder. Through a cooperative effort of Hume scholars world-wide, however, it is possible for the Hume Archive to grow into a large and varied collection. Possibilities for the future include acquiring text files of Hume's complete writings, all major Hume commentaries which are in the public domain, writings by other 18th century Scottish writers, back issues of Hume Studies, or text files of any previously published article on Hume which can be authorized for use by the copyright holder.

The Hume Archives gopher site is at the University of Tennessee at Martin (unix1.utm.edu) and is administrated by James Fieser. It can be accessed through the APA gopher through the following path: (1) connect to the APA gopher (apa.oxy.edu), (2) go to the "Other Societies" option on the main menu, (3) go to the "Hume Society" option in that menu, and (4) go to the Hume Archives directory off of the Hume Society menu. If you have text files of commentaries on Hume and would like to make them available in the Hume Archives, please contact James Fieser (jfieser@utm.edu).

James Fieser

University of Tennessee at Martin

New Members

The Hume Society is pleased to welcome the following new members.

Brand, Walter; Pace University, New York

Carrithers, David W; University of Tennessee

Corvino, John F.; University of Texas at Austin

Danowski, Deborah; Rio De Janeiro, Brazil

Dicker, Georges; SUNY College Brockport, NY

Gillett, Carl John; Rutgers University, NJ

Hampton, Jean; University of Arizona, Tucson

Hanson, Delbert J.; Pasadena, CA

Harpham, Edward; Dallas,TX

Kimyai-Asadi, Asadi; Potomac, MD

Lind, Douglas; University of Idaho, Moscow

Magri, Tito; Rome, Italy

Miles, Judy; Cal Poly Pomona, Pomona, CA

Ogden, Chrissy; Tallapoosa, GA

Pressman, H. Mark; Davis, CA

Rauscher, Frederick; University of Pennsylvania

Schmidt, Kathleen; Iowa City, IA

Welbourne, Michael; University of Bristol, UK

Report of Twenty-first Hume Conference - June 20-24 1994

Secretary-Treasurer's Report - June 22, 1994

Membership in the Hume Society is up more than 10% over last year. There are 364 members in good standing. Work continues on a database of Hume authors on which we can draw to recruit new members.

The Treasury stands at $11,141.08 as of June 10, 1994. The Society incurred a one-time expense for Hume Studies start-up funds on August 6, 1993; our regular annual contribution of $10 per member was made on May 5, 1994. Business office expenses, including all printing and mailings, as well as secretarial costs, continue to be paid by Occidental College. Hume Studies receives financial support from the University of Utah and the College of William and Mary.

Bank fees for processing non-U.S. checks have increased, and the Executive Committee has agreed to increase the surcharge for checks in non-U.S. funds from 5% to 10% to cover the increase. Renewal and membership forms will be revised to accommodate the new increase. Payment in U.S. funds or by Visa/Mastercard in any currency is unchanged. The Executive Committee also voted to offer a five-year payment option. Dues for five years may be paid at the rate of $100. While this is not a discounted rate, it is a hedge against possible rate increases.

The EC voted to invest a portion of the Society's savings in Certificates of Deposit (CDs). CDs are fully insured and the rate of return is slightly higher than regular passbook accounts. CDs will be purchased for terms no longer than six months and for no more than $5000 at any time.

Terms of office for executive committee members Jim King and Jane McIntyre will expire on December 31, 1994. Both are eligible for reelection. Wade Robison's term as President will also expire at the end of 1994 and he is eligible for reelection. A call for nominations for the EC and presidential positions will be sent to members in September. The deadline for nominations is October 31. Continuing members of the executive committee are Saul Traiger, Executive Secretary-Treasurer, Stephen Darwall, Peter Millican, Maria Montes, David Raynor and Geoffrey Sayre McCord.

I continue to welcome submissions from members for the Bulletin of the Hume Society. I am particularly interested in publishing announcements of your accomplishments, works in progress, awards, and even simply your whereabouts, when changed.

Saul Traiger, Executive Secretary-Treasurer

President's Report - June 22, 1994

The Executive Committee has been very busy this past year. It has begun to meet continuously via e-mail, and this has provided the opportunity to consider a number of long-standing issues that it was unable to consider or, if considered, to settle in its infrequent face-to-face meetings.

It voted to provide 100 pounds (about $150) to the Saltire Society in its quest for a large amount of money to erect a monument to David Hume in Edinburgh. It seemed appropriate that the Hume Society be among those who subscribed initially to the project, to lend its support to the idea, and also appropriate, since we are a scholarly society, to make the support modest. We also agreed to allow the Saltire Society to solicit the members of the Hume Society for funds as long as it is understood that we are not soliciting funds. We will keep the members informed of the progress of this project.

We also considered the question of lifetime memberships. This is an issue that has been raised over the years by a number of members, but the Executive Committee was unable to come up with a formula that would both protect the Society from inflation and be fair to the membership. The concerns about inflation are of some importance because half the membership costs provide a subscription to Hume Studies and we cannot be sure, in these days of rising printing costs, how long the current cost structure can be maintained. We investigated lifetime memberships in the American Philosophical Association and discovered that those there do not know what the basis is for their calculations. We did decide to provide to renewing members the option of paying for five years at a time, at no reduced rate. That eases the burden of renewing membership without the Society's taking too much of a risk.

The Society's funds have grown significantly in the past ten years under the guidance first of Dorothy Coleman and now Saul Traiger. The Executive Committee voted to divide our funds into two parts, one part to be invested in certificates of deposit for various terms at various rates. The concerns are that we at least keep up with inflation, that we ensure that we have access to enough funds to handle the day-to-day operations of the Society, and that we maintain enough reserves that we can respond to any emergency that might arise. For instance, we will try to keep in reserve enough funds to publish Hume Studies for at least one year should, for whatever reason, funding for it from institutional sources fall through.

There are a variety of issues concerning our yearly conferences that the Executive Committee needs to address. The current arrangement is that when the Executive Committee chooses a site and thus a director for a conference, it appoints, with the consent of the director, a co-director not from that site who is to be Chair of the Reading Committee for the Conference. The Directors are to work together to fashion a conference, with the director on-site taking primary responsibility for arrangements there and the other director ensuring that blind reviewing of papers is done expeditiously and fairly. The Executive Committee effectively relinquishes control over the details of the Conference after it chooses the site and the directors. This arrangement has been necessitated by the complexities of running a conference and by the realization that too many cooks can spoil a stew. One consequence is that the directors get credit for a great conference, and the Executive Committee takes the blame for having chosen poorly if a conference does not go well. This is an appropriate consequence since it urges the Executive Committee to choose wisely.

The Executive Committee has on its agenda for future discussion what form of control it should exercise over Conferences. There are concerns about Conference fees (which we have always urged be kept low), about some conference members subsidizing others who attend without paying the conference fee, about how to encourage Society members to volunteer their home institutions as conference sites and thus themselves as conference directors, about whether volumes that arise from conferences ought to be in some way volumes of the Society, and so on.

These and other matters are, as I said, issues the Executive Committee will consider. It has examined one issue that has arisen with the acquisition of Hume Studies. What relationship ought the Society encourage, if any at all, between Hume Studies, now that it owns it, and its yearly conferences? We currently do nothing one way or the other, but the recent surge in interest in having volumes of papers culled from the conferences (e.g. Lancaster, Ottawa, Leeds in 1998) raises issues the Society needs to consider. Otherwise we shall end up with whatever policy happens to emerge from the practice of our doing nothing one way or the other.

One feature of the current policy that we want to ensure is that those whose papers are accepted for a conference have not thereby made any commitment at all about publication and are free to submit the paper wherever they wish. Beyond that, the minimum we can do, and have voted to do, is to ensure that the criteria for the acceptance or rejection of papers for a conference be independent of any consideration whether the papers will or will not fit into any proposed volume that might come out of the conference. The purpose of a conference is to encourage Hume scholarship, and though there are specific themes to create a unified conference, one purpose of a conference is to encourage new and innovative work on Hume. Paper submissions are to be accepted or rejected on their merits. We recognize that this is a delicate matter, of course. Encouraging conference themes may mean sorting through papers with the themes in mind, rejecting some that might otherwise merit a hearing, but are not of sufficient merit to outweigh at least equally meritorious papers that speak to a conference's theme.

We do not want to discourage conference volumes provided that they help Hume scholarship and reflect well on the Society. A collection of conference proceedings is not likely to do either, and is not likely to be accepted by any publisher in any event, but a theme-specific set of papers could be an asset worth encouraging. The Society encourages this possibility by asking the directors to pick a theme or set of themes for each conference.

The Society should encourage such volumes and thus encourage Hume scholars to take on the chore of putting on conferences since they would presumably be encouraged by the prospect of an edited volume. But we also want to ensure that such volumes do not soak up all the outstanding Hume papers so that the editors of Hume Studies are left without much choice. We also would not want the editors of Hume Studies to soak up the best conference papers and leave conference directors without a viable set of papers for a volume.

In the best of cases, the conference directors and the editors of Hume Studies will work out between themselves who shall offer publication, if either, and there will be no conflict. The Executive Committee shall ask future prospective directors if they are willing to work out such matters with the editors of Hume Studies. The aim is to give the editors of Hume Studies first right of refusal for any paper accepted at a Conference without harming the interests of the Society and of directors in producing a volume from the conference. The Chair of the Reading Committee for a conference has first look at prospective papers and so is in the best position to pick and choose papers for a conference volume. The aim is to redress this imbalance somewhat to ensure the continued high level of quality of Hume Studies. The Executive Committee has also been examining the Society's constitution and will be proposing a variety of amendments this fall. The primary concern is to provide for Hume Studies since the Constitution says nothing at all about a journal at present, but since revising a constitution is time-consuming and not something a Society should do frequently, we have also taken the occasion to examine some of its other features and will propose amendments regarding term limitations, removal of errant officers, having Executive Committee meetings by e-mail, and so on. Since the Constitution currently requires that one-half of the membership respond positively if an amendment is to pass, we urge you to vote on this issue.

Wade L. Robison, President

Rome, 1994: Closing Remarks by David Fate Norton

These are the words which brought the Twenty-First Hume Conference to a close.

Before closing this conference I wish to make a few brief remarks. First, let me extend our thanks to Antonella Amato and Enrico Coffari, our simultaneous translators, and to Simonetta Carbonetti and the staff of FA.SI.Congress. I am sure I speak for all of us when I also extend thanks to the Università di Roma "La Sapienza" and to the Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche.

I offer my personal thanks to the North American Reading Committee, who helped me with the selection and revision of papers, and whose work contributed immeasurably to the success of this conference. I also received substantial assistance from Professor Saul Traiger, and wish to take this opportunity to thank him for both this assistance, and the willing spirit in which it was given.

I also join Professor Lecaldano in thanking the members of the Italian Organizing Committee, Professor Baroncelli, Carabelli, Formagari, Magri, Pesante, Restaino, Scribano, Turco, and Postigliola.

Having mentioned Professor Turco, let me mention the one matter regarding which he and I are in irremediable disagreement: The one indispensable person in the organizing this conference was Professor Eugenio Lecaldano. It was Professor Lecaldano's concern for detail, and his concern for scholarly matters and for individual well-being were essential factors in making this conference the success I believe it was. I would ask those of you who share my desire to thank him for his dedication to our cause, will you please stand with me and join in a lively round of applause.

At the conclusion of two of the four or five meetings of our Society that I have helped organize, the final session of the conference consisted of a kind of summary. In Montreal, Antony Flew and Robert Fogelin led an impressionistic -- and sometimes heated -- discussion of the David Hume that had emerged during that Conference. In Canberra, David Gauthier closed the Conference by discussing every one of the papers presented there. You will be relieved to know that I intend to no such summary. But I would like to close with a simple thought.

Jane McIntyre and I were earlier reminiscing about the first Hume conference we both attended, the bicentennial conference of 1976. What we remember as important about that conference differs in detail, but is alike in substance. I remembered a particular discussion that set the agenda, as it were, for the book on Hume I published five years later, and, eventually, the paper I gave here on Wednesday. In Jane McIntryre's case, it was a question over coffee, a question that has helped to shape much of her subsequent work on Hume. I hope that some of you, eighteen years hence, will remember this conference for an important question presented to you.

Membership Renewal Notes

With this year's renewal notice, Hume Society members may exercise the option of paying dues for five years at once. A five-year renewal is $100. While the per year rate is the same as a one year renewal, five year renewals have obvious advantages. In addition to helping the Hume Society's treasury, members will avoid the cost and inconvenience of annual renewals. Please consider this new dues payment option when your membership renewal form arrives in December.

The publication of the Bulletin of the Hume Society is made possible by funding from Occidental College. The editor is Saul Traiger.