Spring 1996, Vol. XXV, No. 1

Bulletin of the

HUME SOCIETY

Department of Philosophy - Occidental College, Los Angeles, California 90041, USA


Twentieth Anniversary Issue

Volume I, No. 1 of the Bulletin of the Hume Society was published in September, 1976. The issue in your hands, the twenty-fifth, marks the twentieth anniversary of publication. It is unclear how we managed twenty-five volumes in twenty years. Perhaps we should offer a free Hume Society t-shirt to the member who produces the most plausible explanation.

In that first issue, members were introduced to the Bulletin in the following words:

The Bulletin of the Hume Society is a periodical publication issued by the Hume Society giving official notice of its meetings and proceedings, and serving the purpose of stimulating scholarship on the philosophy and writings of David Hume. The Bulletin is distributed free of charge to members of the Society, and upon request, to any interested party. Responsible for publication at Northern Illinois University are: James King and Donald Livingston.

Membership dues were $10 biennially. The front page of the Bulletin included information about the newly adopted by-laws of the Society and the election of the Executive Committee at the founding meeting of the Society on October 25, 1974.

Nottingham Conference Information

The following information is provided by Professor Roger Gallie, conference co-director and site coordinator for the Twenty-third Hume Conference.

The Twenty-third Hume Conference will take place at the University of Nottingham, England, U.K. from Monday July 15th through Friday July 19th 1996. The conference will be centered in Rutland Hall, situated in Nottingham University's large and well appointed campus. Registration, which will be done by Conference Nottingham, a non- profit organization, will commence at 2 p.m. on Monday, July 15th in the foyer of Rutland Hall. The registration fee will be [[sterling]]105 for 4 days, [[sterling]]95 for 3 days. The Rutland Hall rates are as follows: 4 days dinner/bed and breakfast [[sterling]]122.60; 4 days dinner/bed and breakfast (less one dinner) [[sterling]]112.05; 3 days dinner/bed and breakfast [[sterling]]91.95; 3 days dinner/bed and breakfast (less one dinner) [[sterling]]81.40; with extra charges for shared lounge and ensuite facilities.

There will be a running buffet in Rutland Hall from 5.30 pm onwards with the Hall Bar open at the same time. There will be a reception to open the conference from 7- 8 pm in the Great Hall, Trent Building, followed by a plenary session in the Senate Chamber, Trent Building. All plenary sessions will take place in the Senate Chamber, with other meetings taking place in meeting rooms in Rutland Hall, including its generous library and junior common room, or its sister and neighbouring hall, Sherwood Hall.

Please note that accommodation for this conference can only be booked through Conference Nottingham. By the middle of April at the latest, each member of the Hume Society should have received a mailing from Conference Nottingham, which will contain:

a. A form comprising a booking form for reserving accommodation in Rutland Hall or in a few selected Nottingham hotels and a registration form. (The registration fee will cover the reception, morning coffees, lunch and afternoon tea in Rutland each day of the conference, conference wallet, including abstracts of all papers to be given and full programme of papers and events.)

b. Full information on Rutland Hall and the selected hotels: (Rutland Hall has 10 sets of pairs of bedrooms each pair sharing a lounge, 50 pairs of rooms sharing a bathroom, 28 ensuite bedrooms, and 120 single rooms sharing some communal bathrooms, all at competitive prices.) Transport will be available to bring hotel dwellers to Rutland in time for the first meeting of the day and to bring them back to their hotel after the last meeting of the day.

c. Information about what to do in Nottingham and Nottinghamshire. (Some excursions are being planned. There will be a Medieval Banquet on offer for Thursday evening, beginning 8.30pm.

d. Full information on how to get to Nottingham.

Here is some in case you ever loose your information. Nottingham is situated in the East Midlands of England. It can be easily reached from the M1 motorway by turning off that motorway at junction 24 or 25. In either case the trick is to find the A52 into Nottingham. From junction 25 the A52 is the Derby Road (but not going to Derby). From junction 24 you take the A453 into Nottingham and turn left onto the A52 which is a dual carriageway bypassing the city centre and leading you to the Nottingham University campus. By the way we are not the Nottingham Trent University! Alternatively you can aim for Nottingham Railway Station by rail from London, St Pancras, if your plane has landed in Heathrow or Gatwick. There are trains from Gatwick to London, Victoria, and the underground will take you from Victoria or from Heathrow to Kings Cross/St Pancras. There are trains from Manchester Airport via Manchester Piccadily to Nottingham. If you opt to land at East Midlands Airport there are buses to Nottingham Bus Station. It is open to you to take buses from London, Victoria, to Nottingham Bus Station, such as it is, but British buses are, though cheaper than British trains, British buses and not another thing.

The address of Conference Nottingham, should you have any difficulties with accommodation, is Conference Nottingham Limited, Regent House, Clinton Avenue, Nottingham NG5 1AZ, U.K., Telephone 44 115 985 6545, Fax 44 115 985 6533. You should write to, or ask to speak to, the Executive Director, Mark W. Alexander, in the first instance, or Tracey Dennistoun, his personal assistant. You should certainly do this if you have not received your conference mailing by April 15, 1996.

If you are in difficulties of other sorts, feel free to try the on- site conference co- ordinator, Roger Gallie. His work phone number is 44 115 9515846, his work fax number is 44 115 9515840. His e- mail address is Roger.Gallie@nottingham.ac.uk. The telephone number of the Philosophy Department at Nottingham is 44 115 9515850.

Nottingham Preliminary Program

The following information is provided by Professor John Biro, conference co-director for the Twenty-third Hume Conference. The order of appearance below does not reflect the order of presentation at the conference proper. The information below was provided on April 5, 1996 and may be subject to change.

ìReid's Defense of Objectivist Intuitionism,î Sanford S. Levy, Montana State University. Commentator TBA.

Spinoza's Paternity of Hume's Theory of Justice, W.N.A. Klever, Erasmus University Rotterdam. Commentator: Olli Koistinen, University of Turku, Finland

Is Hume's Epistemology Internalist or Externalist?, Kevin Meeker, University of Notre Dame. Commentator: Rupert Read, Manchester Metropolitan University

ìHume, Images and the Mental Object Problem,î Shelagh Crooks, St. Mary's University. Commentator: Anne Jacobson, University of Houston

ìHume's Account of Space and Time as Manners of Disposition,î Lorne Falkenstein, University of Western Ontario. Commentator: James O'Shea, University College, Dublin

ìHume's Causal Slip,î Terence Penelhum, University of Calgary. Commentator: Eric Steinberg, City University of New York

ìPhilosopher as Anatomist,î Mark Turiano, Stone Mountain, GA. Commentator: Dorothy Coleman, College of William and Mary

"Reid's Debt to Scottish Legal Practice and His Response to Hume,î William Davis, Mount Union College. Commentator: Edward Barbanell, University of Utah

"Hume and Reid on 'Perfect' and 'Fictitious' Identity," Kathleen Schmidt, Ohio State University. Commentator: Maria Montes

"Moral Aspects of Mind and Causation in Hume's Treatise" Andrew Cunningham, University of Toronto

"Hume and Peirce on the Laws of Nature: Nominalism vs Realism,î Kenneth Merrill, University of Oklahoma. Commentator: James Dye, Northern Illinois University

"Reid's Critique of the Logic of Ideas,î Emily Michael, Brooklyn College, CUNY. Commentator: Roger Gallie, University of Nottingham

ìSympathy, Consensus, and Convention,î Eugene Heath, SUNY College at New Paltz. Commentator: Rudolf Lüthe, Emory University

"Causality as a Philosophical Relation to Hume," Graciela De Pierris, Indiana University. Commentator: Peter Millican, University of Sheffied

"Representation, Reason and Motivation," Rachel Cohon, Stanford University, and David Owen, University of Arizona. Commentator: Geoffrey Sayre McCord, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill

"Hume's Critique of Hypothetical Contractarianism," Andrew Valls, Morehouse College; Commentator TBA

"Hume's Idea of Necessary Connection," R. M. Sainsbury, King's College, London. Commentator: Simon Blackburn, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, and Francis Dauer,

University of California, Santa Barbara

"Objects of Intention, Visual Perception and Realism in Thomas Reid,î Lucia Dacome, Wolfson College. Commentator: Georges Dicker, SUNY- Brockport

"Deliberation and Desire in Aristotle and Hume," Thomas Olshewsky, University of Kentucky. Commentator: Tito Magri, University of Bari

"The History and Significance of Hume's Burning Coal Example,î D. Anthony Lariviere and Thomas M. Lennon, University of Western Ontario. Commentator: Don Garrett,

University of Utah

24th Hume Society Conference Update

The following information is provided by Professor Elizabeth Radcliffe, conference co-director and site coordinator for the Twenty-fourth Hume Conference.

The Doubletree Hotel at Fisherman's Wharf is the site for the Twenty- fourth Hume Society Conference, scheduled for July 29 - August 2, 1997, in Monterey, California. The directors promise a fine blend of international Hume scholarship and collegiality, with a conference highlighting Pacific Rim participation in a lovely ocean setting. The Doubletree is in the historic section of Monterey near numerous shops and restaurants and within walking distance of Cannery Row and the Monterey Bay Aquarium. Carmel, Pebble Beach, and Big Sur are a short drive away. Closing date for submissions, as announced in the Call for Papers, is November 1, 1996, and selected themes are Hume and the Sciences, Hume and Moral Rationalism, and Nature and Convention. For further information, contact one of the directors (Ken Winkler, Tatsuya Sakamoto, or Elizabeth Radcliffe) or on the web : http://www- acc.scu.edu/~eradcliffe/24thhumeconference.html for the Call for Papers, travel directions, further information about the Monterey Peninsula and the Doubletree, as well as links to other Hume web sites.

News from Members

Stephen Darwallís The British Moralists and the Internal ëOughtí: 1640-1740 has been published by Cambridge University Press. See the Recent Books section below for more information.

Kevin Meeker won the Graduate Student Award for submitted papers at the Pacific Division meetings of the American Philosophical Association in April. Meekerís paper, ìHumeís Scepticism about Reason and Naturalized Epistemologyî was delivered in a colloquium session on epistemology. William Edward Morris was the commentator.

A review of Gerhard Stremingerís David Hume: Sein Leben und sein Werk appeared in the October 23, 1995 issue of the Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung, the leading daily newspaper in Germany. The review, by Patrick Bahners, was entitled ìDer Heilige des Skeptizismus.î Stremingerís recent biography of Hume, David Hume: Sein Leben und sein Werk has just appeared in paperback, published by UTB in 1995. It is available for DM 39.50.

David Hume: Critical Assessments Offer

David Hume: Critical Assessments 6 Volume Set is available to Hume Society members at a special 40% discounted rate of $450.00 U.S. and $630.00 Canadian, off of the listed $750.00 U.S. and $1050.00 Canadian retail value. For shipping within the U.S. please add an additional $7.82. To order your set, or for further information please contact: Amy- lynn Fischer, Routledge Sales Dept., 29 West 35th Street, NY, NY 10001; 212- 244- 3336; email: fischer@routledge.com

Hume Society on the World Wide Web

Hume Society information is available through the World Wide Web. Using a web client (e.g. Netscape or Mosaic) open the URL http://www.oxy.edu/apa/hume.html. In addition to membership information, users may access e-versions of this and past Bulletins, e-mail addresses, calls for papers, and links to other Hume-related websites.

In Memoriam

Jean Hampton 1954-1996

Jean Hampton suffered a massive cerebral hemorrhage on March 29, and died on April 2. She was in Paris, engaged in research on reasons at CREA (Centre de Recherche en Épistémologie Appliquée, École Polytechnique), immensely enjoying her stay. She had just completed a riding lesson when the hemorrhage occurred; she was briefly but painlessly aware of her condition but, before her husband Richard Healey or their son Andrew could be at her side, she passed into a coma from which she did not awaken. She was forty-one years old, her many notable accomplishments the seeming promise of more and even better yet to come.

At the time of her death she was on leave from the University of Arizona, where she was Professor of Philosophy. A graduate of Wellesley and Harvard, she taught first at the University of California at Los Angeles, and then at the University of Pittsburgh and the University of California at Davis. She was active in her universities and in several professional organizations, and was much in demand in both North America and Europe as a distinguished lecturer and speaker.

We are left with writings and memories. We have her incomparable study, Hobbes and the Social Contract Tradition, scholarly in its reading of Hobbes, controversial and illuminating in its interpretations of his ideas, imaginative in its linkage with rational choice and its classification of contract theories. And in a markedly different vein, we have Forgiveness and Mercy, a work of point and counterpoint written with Jeffrie Murphy. We shall have her introductory work Political Philosophy, and we may hope for at least part of her study of reason, in progress at the time of her death. As well as these books, we have her papers, on Hobbes and on contractarianism, on punishment and retribution, on rationality, on liberalism, on feminism -- and on Hume, examining his conception of practical reason, and his affinities with Hobbes. I should give special mention to Jean's important contribution to the discussion of instrumental rationality -- "The Failure of Expected Utility Theory as a Theory of Reason," published in Economics and Philosophy.

Jean's relation to Hume was not a comfortable one. Her concern with reason led her, unsurprisingly, to inquire into Hume's view. But what she found was that Hume's acuteness as a defender of naturalism did not turn him into an instrumentalist about practical reason, as some have supposed, but led him to reject the normativity of practical reason altogether. Hume was, for Jean, the most consistent naturalist, but this could not in the end be a recommendation.

Jean was a moral universalist, and might have liked to be a Kantian, but there was a Hobbesian economic woman inside her, warning her of the exploitative potential of other-directed feelings, and reminding her of the importance of free-rider problems. And that Hobbesian persona was, I believe, linked to the very tough-minded follower of Jesus who would forgive again and again but not to the point of renouncing every instance of moral hatred.

And so the memories. Jean satisfied the stereotype of the diminutive redhead -- the feisty, no-holds-barred scrapper who never gave less than she got. She battled endlessly in the war of ideas, fearlessly exposing her views to debate, defending them tenaciously, and then retiring to rethink her position. Although she was rarely bested in open combat, she recognized that her first ideas were often not her best ones, and so she was the master of strategic withdrawal, followed by renewed, strengthened attack on another front. But if I speak of the war of ideas, let me insist that her combats were constructive -- the aim always the true and not the rhetorically plausible. Not that truth could be expected; in a review published only this month she wrote, "I confess that I've never run across any interesting philosophical argument that could claim, uncontroversially, to be sound." Jean was firmly committed, but never pretentious. Encountering her was always strenuous, always fun, always rewarding.

But there will be no more encounters, no more battles. No more gatherings enlivened by Jean's incisiveness and enthusiasm. No more assaults on the orthodoxies of rational choice buttressed by anecdotes of how disputes got settled in the neighbourhood games of her childhood. We may be wise, we philosophers, but our wisdom, unlike that of our mentor Socrates, seems impotent in the face of death. Jean greatly valued philosophy, but she had other resources; to God she entrusted herself, and whatever our own beliefs and unbeliefs, we must think that she left us in the firm hope that he would receive her.

David Gauthier, with the assistance of Christopher Morris

Please Note: The Pacific Division APA is planning a special session on Jean Hampton's work - - its significance, influence and promise - - at the 1997 meeting in Berkeley, California. The program committee chair, Craig Ihara, is working with Debra Satz of the Program Committee and many of Jean's friends to propose a program for this session. Suggestions for this session are welcome and should be e- mailed to Craig Ihara (cihara@ccvax.fullerton.edu). At the 1996 Pacific Division Business Meeting, Michael Bratman, who chaired the nominating committee on which Jean had just served, spoke eloquently in memory of her. His memorial words, endorsed by all present, will be printed in the APA Proceedings as part of the Minutes of the meeting. A fund for the purpose of memorializing Jean has been established. Those who wish to contribute to this fund should make their checks payable to the University of Arizona Foundation/Jean Hampton Account. Checks may be sent to the Jean Hampton Fund, Department of Philosophy, University of Arizona, P.O. Box 210027, Tucson, AZ 85721- 0027.

Andrew Murray MacBeath 1946- 1995

Murray MacBeath, Lecturer in Philosophy and Religious Studies at the University of Stirling, died on Sunday , October 1, 1995. Murray had been a member of the Hume Society for some time, and participated in the Reykjavik Conference of 1984 where he read a paper entitled "Hume on Justification and Explanation" (a version of which was subsequently published in Hume Studies). Murray was also a notable Kant scholar, but in recent years his main publications were on the philosophy of time. He was joint editor, with Robin Le Poidevin, of The Philosophy of Time (in the Oxford Reading Series). Murray was a superb teacher, a stimulating and always helpful colleague, and an embodiment of the Humean virtues of wit and humour. He will be greatly missed by all who knew him.

Tony Pitson

Call for Contributors: Dictionary of Literary Biography

A series of volumes of the Dictionary of Literary Biography (DLB) will be devoted to British and American philosophers of the last several centuries, and contributors are still needed for some of the entries. The DLB is edited at Bruccoli Clark Layman Inc. of Columbia, S.C., and published by the noted publisher of reference materials, Gale Research Inc. of Detroit. It is an open- ended series that currently consists of about 160 volumes. (Volumes are published at a rate of about one per month.) Although the DLB is called a "dictionary," the articles in each volume are not terse, dictionary- style entries but fully illustrated, in- depth biographical- critical essays on significant writers of a specific genre, literary movement, and/or time period. This unique arrangement allows users to study a group of authors in their literary context and to examine their collective impact. Each DLB entry is written by a recognized scholar and discusses its subject's life, career, and works and summarizes the critical response to the works from initial publication to the present. Each entry also contains a complete list of the subject's works and a bibliography of secondary sources on the subject. DLB volumes can be found on the reference shelves of college, university, and public libraries throughout the United States and Great Britain.

Entry lengths and fees are as follows: for a relatively minor figure, 3,000 words ($50); for a second- rank figure, 5,000- 6,000 words ($75); for a first- rank figure, 10,000- 12,000 words ($100); for a "giant," as long as is required by the subject's canon and career ($125). Also, a DLB entry is a significant publication credit that identifies the contributor as an authority in his or her field. Subjects still available at this writing include Francis Bacon, Jeremy Bentham, David Hume, John Locke, John Stuart Mill, A.J. Ayer, Stuart Hampshire, G. E. Moore, Karl Popper, Sir David Ross, L. Susan Stebbing, Robert Nozick, and John Rawls. Generally, after a contract is signed we allow three months for the completion of an entry, but the deadline is negotiable.

For more information, please contact the philosophy series editor, Dr. Philip B. Dematteis, Bruccoli Clark Layman, Inc., 2006 Sumter Street, Columbia SC 29201- 2157;

phone (803) 771- 4642; fax (803) 799- 6953; e- mail PhilipD882@AOL.com.

Call for Book Length Manuscripts in Ethics

Authors of book length manuscripts in English on either theoretical or applied ethics are invited to submit them for consideration by Peter Lang Publishing Inc. for possible publication in its new ethics series. Books submitted on traditional moral philosophers or on one or more ethical problems they have considered are welcome. However, authors should demonstrate strong connections between historical and contemporary philosophical concerns in ethics. Preference will be given to works which deal with perennial philosophical issues in ethics in an original, clear, and scholarly manner rather than to manuscripts which have historical significance alone. Books which approach applied ethics, e.g., business and biomedical ethics, from a philosophical perspective are also welcome. Manuscripts should display expertise in both philosophy and the areas illuminated by the philosophical insights. Send manuscripts to: Professor Sherwin Klein, Fairleigh Dickinson University,

Edward Williams College, 150 Kotte Place, Hackensack, New Jersey 07601. E- mail: sherwin@alpha.fdu.edu

Call for Papers: Language, Thought and Reality in the Eighteenth- century

A call for papers has been issued for a session at the North- Eastern Society for 18th- Century Studies, The College of the Holy Cross, Worcester, MA, September 26- 29, 1996. Proposals are invited for a session (or perhaps two sessions) on the relationship between language, thought and reality in eighteenth- century philosophy, linguistics, literary criticism, anthropology or any other of the many fields where this topic arises. Proposals that show links between this problem and other areas of eighteenth- century discourse are particularly welcome. Send proposals to Nicholas Hudson, nhudson@unixg.ubc.ca, or at the Department of English, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z1.

The Western Society for Eighteenth- century Studies 1997 Annual Conference

February 14 - 16, 1997, University of California, Berkeley. Proposals for panels as well as one- page abstracts for papers (reading length 15- 20 minutes) are invited from scholars in all disciplines related to eighteenth- century studies. Among suggested panel topics are: The Construction of National Identities, Cosmopolitanism and Nationalism, Translation, Somatic Aspects of 18th- Century Reading, Advertisement and Culture, Tiepolo, The Napoleonic Regime and the Arts, The Limits of Cultural History, Politics/Society/Gender, Cultural Constructions of Personal Authority, Imagination, Drugs and Narcotics, Revolutionary Culture, Reading and Writing about Scandal, The Pacific in 18th- Century Culture, Writing, Publishing, and Self- Identity. Submissions (including return address, institutional identification, and a telephone number and/or e- mail address) should be sent to Professor Thomas Kavanagh, Department of French #2580, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720- 2580. Send e- mail submissions to "Kavanagh@violet.berkeley.edu" by May 15, 1996.

Recent Books and Monographs

Stewart, M.A., The Kirk and the Infidel. England: Lancaster University Publications Office, 1995. 29 pp.

This is an expanded text of the author's Inaugural Lecture as Professor of the History of Philosophy delivered at Lancaster University in 1994. It details in full the events and issues involved in the controversy surrounding John Pringle's resignation and Hume's candidacy for a university appointment at Edinburgh in 1744- 45. Significant detail from Pringle's private correspondence and from the shorthand papers of William Wishart is here released for the first time. A reexamination of the chronology of events recorded in the Town Council minutes and other documents confirms the 18th- century view that Hume's case collapsed with the veto of the ministers, rather than with the ineffectual machinations of the politicians. A Letter from a Gentleman, far from being a response to that veto, was compiled and put out by Hume's friends in a vain attempt to avert it. Wishart is identified as a Hutchesonian liberal, not the "high flier" of biographical tradition, and an explanation is offered as to why the effective opposition to Hume came from this quarter. Hume's response to his critics is to be found less in the Letter than in the first Enquiry, the work of his own that he was engaged on at the time of the Edinburgh affair.

Norton, David Fate, and Norton, Mary J. The David Hume Library, Edinburgh, Edinburgh Bibliographical Society, 156 pp.

David Hume, well-known as a philosopher and historian, was also an avid reader and collector of books. Unfortunately, no catalogue of his library survives. The Nortons have traced the path of Humeís books to his brother and sister, then to his nephew, David Hume the Younger (later Baron Hume), and finally to Thomas Stevenson, an Edinburgh bookseller. Working from manuscript sources, including an 1840 catalogue of Baron Humeís library, as well as letters to Hume, the authors identify several hundred titles that belonged to, or probably belonged to, Hume. Further information and an order form are included with this Bulletin. For more information, contact Publication Sales, National Library of Scotland, George IV Bridge, Edinburgh EH1 1EW.

Loptson, Peter, Theories of Human Nature, Peterborough, ON: Broadview Press, 1995, 272pp.

This text explores the idea of human nature and the many understandings of it put forward by such diverse figures as Aristotle, Rousseau, Marx, Freud, Darwin and E.O. Wilson. Each chapter looks at a different theory and offers a concise explanation, and assesses its plausibility. Beyond that, however, Loptson does not attempt to fit each theory into a mold. Some chapters deal with the ideas of only one thinker, some with a variety of related positions (such as those on liberalism and feminism). A clear distinction is made between theories of human nature and the political theories which so often follow from them.

Peter Loptson is a professor of philosophy at the University of Saskatchewan and a member of the Hume Society.

Berman, David, George Berkeley: Idealism and the Man, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1994, 248 pp.

Unlike nearly all studies of Berkeley, this book looks at the full range of his work and links it with his life -- focusing in particular on his religious thought. While aiming to present a clear picture of his career, Berman breaks new ground on, among other topics, Berkeleyís philosophical strategy, his account of immortality, his Jacobitism, his emotive theory of religious mysteries, and the motivation of his Siris (1744). Also distinctive is the attention paid to the Irish context of his thought, his symbolic frontpieces and portraits, and recent discoveries concerning his life and writings. The Berkeley that emerges from this study is deeper and more human than the usual picture of him as a starry-eyed idealist with every virtue under heaven.

Ross, Ian Simpson, The Life of Adam Smith, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1995, 528 pp.

Few would deny that Adam Smith was one of the great minds of the eighteenth century. He is perceived through his best-known book, The Wealth of Nations, as the founder of economics as a science, and his ideas about the free market and the role of the state (in relation to it) continue to influence modern economic thought. Yet Smith achieved even more as a man of lettters, as a moralist, historian, and critic. The Life of Adam Smith, the first full-scale biography of Smith in a hundred years, is a superb account of Smithís life and work, encompassing a career that spanned some of the defining moments in world history, including the American and French Revolutions. Here author Ian Simpson Ross examines Smithís family life, education, career, intellectual circle (including David Hume and Francois Quesnay), and his contemporaries (the likes of Immanuel Kant, Voltaire, and Thomas Jefferson), bringing to life this great thinker and author.

Wokler, Robert, Rousseau, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1995, 144 pp.

In this compact and thought-provoking study of Rousseauís life and works Robert Wokler shows how his philosophy of history, his theories of music and politics, his fiction, educational and religious writings, and even his botany, were all inspired by visionary ideals of mankindís self-realization in a condition of unfettered freedom. He explains how, in regressing to classical republicanism, ancient mythology, direct communion with God, and solitude, Rousseau anticipated some post-modernist rejections of the Englightenment as well.

Darwall, Stephen, The British Moralists and the Internal ëOughtí: 1640-1740, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1995, 364 pp.

This book is a major work in the history of ethics, and provides the first study of early modern British philosophy in several decades. Professor Darwall discerns two distinct traditions feeding into the moral philosophy of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. On the one hand, there is the empirical, naturalist tradition, comprising Hobbes, Locke, Cumberland, Hutcheson, and Hume, which argues that obligation is the practical force that empirical discoveries acquire in the process of deliberation. On the other hand, there is the group including Cudworth, Shaftesbury, Butler, and in some moments Locke, which views obligation as inconceivable without autonomy and which seeks to develop a theory of the will as self-determining.

Yolton, Jean S, John Locke: A Descriptive Bibliography, Bristol: Thoemmes Press, 1996, 500 pp.

This hugely detailed analytic and descriptive bibliography documents John Lockeís works published from 1654 through 1800. Compiled by Jean S. Yolton over the last twenty years, it includes the publishing history of all known editions and translations, as well as material published in journals, and posthumous materials whenever published. Separate sections are devoted to a chronology of Lockeís life, with authorship; a brief listing of criticism through 1800; and numerous indexes. The enormous research includes the study of copies in some seventy-five libraries in the British Isles, Europe and North America; exemplars on record at other libraries, chiefly in the former East Germany, are also recorded. Jean Yolton is a professional librarian who was a cataloguer at Robarts Library of the University of Toronto, and Rare Books Cataloguer at the Van Pelt Library, University of Pennsylvania. She and her husband, John, are recognized as leading Locke scholars and have, between them, published a variety of books on Locke, including their authoritative work, Locke: A Reference Guide and a critical edition of Lockeís Some Thoughts Concerning Education (1989). Jean is also editor of A Locke Miscellany (1990).

Hamilton, Sir William, ed., The Collected Works of Dugald Stewart, Bristol: Thoemmes Press, 1854-60 edition, 2 volumes, 5260 pp.

The works of Stewart came to be seen as a ëScottish Schoolí and were enormously influential both in France and in America for much of the nineteenth century. Sir William Hamiltonís edition of Stewartís Collected works is still the standard one and an indispensable tool for studying both Stewart and the epoch of late Enlightenment, revolution and romanticism. The edition includes a memory of Dugald Stewart by John Veitch and a new introduction by Knud Haakonssen.

Brown, Stuart, ed., British Empiricism and the Enlightenment, Routledge History of Philosophy, Volume 5, NY: Routledge, 1996, 416 pp.

This volume begins with Herbert of Cherbury and the Cambridge Platonists and with Newton and the early English Enlightenment. Locke is a key figure, as a result of his importance both in the development of British and Irish philosophy and because of his seminal influence in the Enlightenment as a whole. British Philosophy and the Age of the Enlightenment includes discussion of the Scott Enlightment and its influence on the German Aufklarung and consequently on Kant. The French Enlightenment, which in turn affected the late radical Enlightenment, especially Bentham, is also considered here.

De Jijn, Herman, Spinoza: The Way to Wisdom, West Lafeyette, IN: Purdue University Press, 1996, 300 pp.

The philosophy of Baruch Spinoza (1632-77) is an unusual, highly original, and influential reaction to the transition of Western culture to the modern age. According to Spinoza, modern scientific thinking, if thought through, leads to a denial of humanityís most cherished view: humanity as the center of creation, willed by a personal God. It is Spinoza who first formulated a philosophy which shows that modern scientific thinking, and the modern metaphysical view of humanity and the world that it gives rise to, does not have to lead to despair. He understood that engaging seriously in detached philosophical thinking could lead to an unexpected form of intellectual salvation.

De Dijnís comprehensive introduction to Spinozaís philosophy is based on two key texts. He first provides an in-depth analysis of Spinozaís Treatise on the Improvement of the Understanding, which De Dijn characterizes as his introduction to philosophy. This notoriously difficult text is here made accessible, even in its details. This analysis is followed by a comprehensive survey of Spinozaís metaphysics as presented in his famous Ethics. De Dijn demonstrates how Spinozaís central philosophical project as introduced in the Treatise -- the linkage of knowledge and salvation -- is perfectly realized in the Ethics. In this way the unity of Spinozaís thought is shown to consist in his preoccupation with the ìethicalî question of salvation. The book also contains introductory chapters on Spinozaís life and work, the original Latin text of the Treatise, and its new English translation by Edwin Curley, and an annotated bibliography on the secondary literature.

Hume, David, The Philosophical Works of David Hume, Bristol: Thoemmes Press, 1854 edition, 4 volume boxed set, 2178 pp.

David Hume, whose Treatise of Human Nature is arguably the greatest philosophical work in the English language, will always be required reading for students and academics in all the human sciences. On first publication in 1739, this revolutionary book was greeted with mockery and incomprehension. Possibly the only contemporary philosophers capable of understanding Hume were Kant and Thomas Reid. Disappointed by its neglect, Hume nevertheless contributed further philosophical works, before seeking literary fame in history and moral and political thought. This reprint of the first collected uniform edition of the Philosophical Works contains all the Essays, and shows Humeís important editorial alterations and corrections of the various editions published in his lifetime. Essays such as Suicide and Immortality of the Soul omitted in the 1777 edition are here included, as are two accounts of his life, one by Hume himself and the other by his great friend Adam Smith. This complete edition is suitable for all students of philosophy and the Scottish Enlightenment and would enhance every libraryís collection.

New Members

The Hume Society is pleased to welcome the following new members.

Abelove, Henry; Princeton University, U.S.A.

Anderson, Noel; Monterey Park, CA, U.S.A.

Berry, C. J.; University of Glasgow, U.K.

Bloom, Leon; Scottsdale, AZ, U.S.A.

Bruhlmeier, Daniel; St. Gallen, Switzerland

Carabelli, Giancarlo; Milano, Italy

Collins, W. P.; Samford University, U.S.A.

Ise, Toshihiko; Ritsumeikan University, Japan

Kail, P. J .E.; Clare College, Cambridge, U.K.

Koivisto, Juha; University of Tampere, Finland

Lindberg, Jordan; University of Missouri, U.S.A.

Mcelroy, George C., Chicago, U.S.A.

Mehtonen, Lauri; University of Tampere, Finland

Nelson, Lucretia; Sunnyvale, CA, U.S.A.

Richardson, Robert C.; University of Cincinnati, U.S.A.

Robertson, J.C.; St. Hugh's College, U.K.

Schwerin, Alan; Lake Charles, LA, U.S.A.

Shinohara, Hisashi; Takarazuka-shi, Japan

Smith, Warren; New York, N.Y., U.S.A.

Tamura, Hitoshi; Nagoya University, Japan

Wilson, Frank; Bucknell University, U.S.A.

The publication of the Bulletin of the Hume Society is made possible with funds from Occidental College. The editor is Saul Traiger.