Fall 1996, Vol. XXV, No. 2

Bulletin of the
HUME SOCIETY

Department of Philosophy - Occidental College, Los Angeles, California 90041, USA



Call for Nominations

The Executive Committee announces a Call for Nominations for the position of Executive Secretary-Treasurer of the Hume Society. The current term of office expires on December 31, 1997. The Secretary-Treasurer is elected by members of the Executive Committee for a once-renewable term of five years. He or she takes office January 1 of the year he or she is elected. The Secretary-Treasurer has both general duties and routine duties that must be executed at certain times of the year. The Secretary-Treasurer maintains the membership database, collects dues, edits and publishes the Bulletin of the Hume Society, prepares calls for papers for Hume Conferences, collects and distributes submitted papers for blind refereeing, maintains the Society's World Wide Web site, and handles nominations and balloting for elections to the Executive Committee and presidency. A more complete description of the Secretary-Treasurer's responsibilities may be found at http://www.oxy.edu/~traiger/hume/duties.html.
 
If you are interested in serving as Secretary-Treasurer, or would like to nominate someone for the position, please contact Wade Robison, President by January 31, 1997. If you would like more information about the postion, contact Saul Traiger.
 
Nottingham Fondly Noted
 
The Hume Society met at Nottingham, England this past July for its 23rd Annual Conference. The University setting was superb -- with the look in places of an old estate, with open fields, huge trees, and a manor house. The papers were intriguing -- covering a wide range of Hume's works and controversial enough to generate discussion. And the gatherings were convivial -- encouraged by having enough time during the discussion period to ensure a thorough examination of the issues and the sort of give-and-take that encourages further discussion after a session is over, by having a pub on hand so that it was easy to slip in for a quick pint and even easier to stay for an evening of conversation, and by a wonderful group of participants with whom it was easy to talk. This conference was marked in particular by sustained discussion, by conversations that spilled out beyond the confines of the rooms in which the papers were presented into the breakfast and lunch tables, into the pub, and onto the excursions to Sherwood Forest and to the medieval banquet.

It is an irony well felt by Conference directors that the more successful they are at ironing out all the difficulties that can arise before and during a conference, the less likely it is that their labors will be appreciated. The smoother the experience to participants, the less visible the immense labors that were needed. This Conference was smooth indeed, and the Society owes John Biro and Roger Gallie its warm and heartfelt thanks for having put on such a fine conference.
 

Wade Robison, President
 

24th Hume Society Conference Progress Report

Plans for the 1997 conference, which will be held at the Doubletree Hotel at Fisherman's Wharf in Monterey, California, from July 29 to August 2, are well underway. Events scheduled include invited papers by Jerome Schneewind (on Hume and moral rationalism, one of the conference themes), Wade Robison (on nature and convention, a second conference theme), and Ryuei Tsueshita, president of the Japanese Society for the History of British Philosophy. There will be six other talks representing the present state of Hume studies in Japan, and a panel including Margaret Wilson, Robert Fogelin, and Peter Millican will discuss Don Garrett's book Cognition and Commitment in Hume's Philosophy. Information on the conference site is available on the conference homepage.

Those who would like to serve as chairs or commentators, please submit your names and areas of specialization to one of the conference directors by December 15th, 1996. We look forward to seeing all of you in California this summer.

Elizabeth Radcliffe eradcliffe@scuacc.scu.edu

Tatsuya Sakamoto saka@econ.mita.keio.ac.jp

Kenneth Winkler kwinkler@wellesley.edu

News from Members
 
Donald Ainslie was recently appointed as an Assistant Professor at the University of Toronto.
 
Paul Russell will be at the University of Pittsburgh Philosophy Department as a visiting Associate Professor for 1996-1997. His address there is: Department of Philosophy, 1001 Cathedral of Learning, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh PA 15260, Fax: 412 624-5377.

Elizabeth Radcliffe has been awarded a 1996-97 Fellowship for College Teachers from the National Endowment for the Humanities, to pursue work on her project, "Passion and Judgment: Hume's Motivational and Moral Psychology". She is spending this school year on leave from Santa Clara University as a visiting scholar in the Philosophy Department at the University of North Carolina/Chapel Hill.
 
Hume Sessions at Regional APA Meetings
 
Sessions sponsored by the Hume Society will be held at each of the divisional meetings of the American Philosophical Association.
 
At the Eastern Division Meetings, the speakers will be Michael Gill, Purdue University, "Moral Sentimentalism, Rationalism, and the Charge of Arbitrariness"; and Kathleen Schmidt, Ohio State University, "Identity and Imagination." The meeting will be on Saturday, Dec. 28, from 5:15 to 7:15 pm in the Cabinet Room.
 
The Central Division session will be an author meets critic style session on John Bricke's, Mind and Morality, An Examination of Hume's Moral Psychology (Oxford, 1996). Stephen Darwall will serve as commentator.
 
Pacific Division information was not available at press time.
 
Call for Papers: Rousseau Association Tenth Biennial Conference
 
The Rousseau Association is seeking papers and paper proposals for its Tenth Biennial Conference which will be held at Université Laval, Quebec, from May 29 - June 1, 1997. The theme of the conference is Rousseau, Juge de Jean-Jacques. One-page abstracts or twelve-page completed papers (in English or French) discussing the Dialogues should be sent to Philip Knee, Faculté de philosophie, Université Laval, Québec, Québec G1K 7P4, Canada. Or e-mail <Philip.Knee@fp.ulaval.ca> by October 10, 1996.
 
Call for Contributors: Dictionary of Literary Biography - Second Notice
 
A series of volumes of the Dictionary of Literary Biography (DLB) will be devoted to British and American philosophers of the last several centuries, and contributors are still needed for some of the entries. The DLB is edited at Bruccoli Clark Layman Inc. of Columbia, S.C., and published by the noted publisher of reference materials, Gale Research Inc. of Detroit. It is an open-ended series that currently consists of about 160 volumes. (Volumes are published at a rate of about one per month.) Although the DLB is called a "dictionary," the articles in each volume are not terse, dictionary-style entries but fully illustrated, in-depth biographical-critical essays on significant writers of a specific genre, literary movement, and/or time period. This unique arrangement allows users to study a group of authors in their literary context and to examine their collective impact. Each DLB entry is written by a recognized scholar and discusses its subject's life, career, and works and summarizes the critical response to the works from initial publication to the present. Each entry also contains a complete list of the subject's works and a bibliography of secondary sources on the subject. DLB volumes can be found on the reference shelves of college, university, and public libraries throughout the United States and Great Britain.
 
Hume Society member Donald T. Siebert edited volume 101, British Prose Writers, 1660-1800, First Series, in which articles on Berkeley by Kenneth Winkler and on Locke by G.A.J. Rogers appeared, and volume 104 [same title], Second Series, with articles on Hume by Don Livingston and on Adam Smith by Ian Ross. Anyone thinking of contributing to these new volumes might want to consult these articles as models.
 
Entry lengths and fees are as follows: for a relatively minor figure, 3,000 words ($50); for a second-rank figure, 5,000-6,000 words ($75); for a first-rank figure, 10,000-12,000 words ($100); for a "giant," as long as is required by the subject's canon and career ($125). Also, a DLB entry is a significant publication credit that identifies the contributor as an authority in his or her field. Subjects still available at this writing include Francis Bacon, Jeremy Bentham, David Hume, John Locke, John Stuart Mill, A.J. Ayer, Stuart Hampshire, G. E. Moore, Karl Popper, Sir David Ross, L. Susan Stebbing, Robert Nozick, and John Rawls. Generally, after a contract is signed we allow three months for the completion of an entry, but the deadline is negotiable.
 
For more information, please contact the philosophy series editor, Dr. Philip B. Dematteis, Bruccoli Clark Layman, Inc., 2006 Sumter Street, Columbia SC 29201-2157; phone (803) 771-4642; fax(803)799-6953; e-mail PhilipD882@AOL.com.
 
McGill Hume Studies Still Available
 
We still have many copies of both the paperback and hardcover editions of McGill Hume Studies, generously donated by David Fate Norton. The volume, which contains papers from the McGill Bicentennial Hume Conference in 1976, is edited by David Fate Norton, Nicholas Capaldi, and Wade L. Robison. To order a copy, send a check for $7 U.S. (or its equivalent in your currency) for paper, $15 for hardcover, to the Executive Secretary-Treasurer. An order form is enclosed with this Bulletin.
 
Seminar on "Theories and Practices of Religious Toleration/Intolerance"
 
The Advanced Study Center of the International Institute, University of Michigan, invites applications and nominations to its 1997-98 seminar on, "Theories and Practices of Religious Toleration/Intolerance." The seminar will be directed by Edwin Curley and Stephen Darwall of the Department of Philosophy and will be broadly interdisciplinary while including issues of special interest to philosophers.

Residency fellowship opportunities are available on a competitive basis to University of Michigan students, faculty, and staff as well as to pre-doctoral and post-doctoral scholars, community organizers, media professionals, and cultural practitioners from outside the University. Pre-doctoral fellows who are in the advanced stages of dissertation writing are especially encouraged to apply. The ASC will offer a small number of long-term fellowships and a larger number of short-term fellowships (one week to one month). It is possible and also encouraged to combine support from the ASC with supplementary sources of funding: sabbatical support, other fellowships, or foundations grants. Applications from Ph.D. students, junior and senior scholars, and professionals are due JANUARY 10, 1997. Applications must include application form, cover letter, research proposal of no more than 1200 words responsive to the described field of inquiry for 1997-98, CV, and three letters from referees who are familiar with your work and the proposed project. Nominations of senior scholars and practitioners are due DECEMBER 20, 1996. Nominations must include letter of recommendation, the nominees qualifications and affiliation, contact information of nominee, CV, and one additional nominator or referee.

Contact Rebecca Armstrong, Program Coordinator, ASC of the International Institute, U. of Michigan, 340 Lorch Hall, 611 Tappan St., Ann Arbor, MI 49109-1220; tel: 313-764-2268; fax:313-763-9154; e-mail: rebecca@umich.edu.

WWW: http://www.umich.edu/~iinet/asc/index.html

Further information is also available from Stephen Darwall (sdarwall@umich.edu) and Edwin Curley (emcurley@umich.edu).
 
Hume in the News
 
The New York Times, Sunday, August 4, 1996 edition ran a story called "Measuring Riches in Ideas, Not Gold" by Sana Siwolop. The article was a sidebar to a feature on Rebecca Goldstein, a former Barnard College philosophy professor and a winner in this year's MacArthur Foundation competition. The article quotes Hume Society member Geoffrey Sayre McCord, who suggests that a disdain for money is a deep and abiding tradition in philosophy. Of interest to Humeans is the second paragraph of the three paragraph article:
 
Even philosophers who have treated money with less disdain have viewed it not in a practical light but in terms of grand social uses. In 1762, David Hume wrote that rather than being the "wheels of trade," money was "the oil which renders the motion of the wheels more smooth and easy." In the 19th century, the utilitarian philosophers, like John Stuart Mill, saw money as a tool for either distributing or procuring happiness, although that didn't prevent them from addressing its disadvantages.
 
Clark Library Announces New Acquisition
 
The following announcement was published in The Center and Clark Newsletter, Number 28, Fall, 1996. a publication of the UCLA Center for 17th and 18th Century Studies and the William Andrews Clark Memorial Library. It is used with the permission of the author of the announcement, Clark Library librarian Bruce Whiteman.
 
A very important manuscript was added to the Clark's holding of early modern material this year. It concerns the famous quarrel between David Hume and Jean-Jacques Rousseau. Hume had given Rousseau shelter in 1766 as an act of friendship, but the high-strung Rousseau took it into his head that Hume was his enemy, and spread rumors to that effect. Hume wrote an account of the fracas and sent it to D'Alembert in Paris so that his French friends would not misunderstand what had happened. D'Alembert added to Hume's manuscript, modified it, and arranged fro it to be translated by J.-B.-A Suard and published as the Exposé succinct de la contestation qui s'est élevée entre M. Hume et M. Rousseau ([Paris], 1766). This version of Hume's manuscript was in turn retranslated into English and published in London as A Concise and Genuine Account [etc.]. Hume's original account was, however, also copied and sent to his friend Jean-Charles Trudaine de Montigny, who made his own faithful translation of the text without any interpolations. It is this manuscript, formerly in the collection of Sir Thomas Phillipps, which the Clark has acquired; and as Hume's original manuscript has disappeared, the Clark manuscript represents the most accurate recension of the Scottish philosopher's narrative of l'affaire Jean-Jacques. The Clark already owned a holograph letter from Hume to Gilbert Stuart, the editor of the Edinburgh Magazine and Review, together with an extensively revised proof of Hume's review of Robert Henry's History of Great Britain that appeared in Stuart's journal.
 
Recent Books and Monographs
 
Badía-Cabrera, Miguel A., La reflexión de David Hume en torno a la religión, San Juan, PR: Editorial de la Universidad de Puerto Rico, 1996, 420 pp. (ISBN 0-8477-0198-0).
 
This book is the result of an attempt to formulate a comprehensive and organic interpretation of Hume's philosophy of religion. In Parts I and II, the author approaches Hume's theory of religion from a unitary perspective of his grandiose philosophical project; he examines it from the vantage point of its main ontological, epistemological, and ethical principles, its historical roots, and enlightened aims. Badía-Cabrera also relates Hume's reflection on religion to the thinker's own historical works and, conversely, takes the investigation into the origin and development as the leading thread to the discovery of a Humean philosophy of history. In the final chapters, Hume's theses concerning the eminently irrational and feigned character of religious faith and its inevitable negative effect on morality, are critically analyzed.
 
Part III examines Hume's attack against the validity of the conclusions of rational theology through his critique of the traditional proofs, such as the ontological argument, the appeal to testimony about miracles, and the argument from design. The last two chapters tackle the question: what and how much can human reason really establish about the existence and nature of God. On this issue, the author argues that Hume's view is a kind of mitigated theism. The latter, even though it recognizes that the belief in God does not arise from an instinct and that the empirical evidence does not sufficiently justify it, upholds it both as a natural and reasonable belief.
 
Bricke, John, Mind and Morality: An Examination of Hume's Moral Psychology, Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1996. 263 pp.
 
John Bricke presents a philosophical study of the theory of mind and morality that David Hume developed in his Treatise of Human Nature and other writings. The chief elements in this theory of mind are Hume's accounts of reasons for action and of the complex interrelations of desire, volition, and affection. On this basis, Professor Bricke lays out and defends Hume's thoroughgoing non-cognitivist theory of moral judgement, and shows that cognitivist and standard sentimentalist readings of Hume are unsatisfactory, as are the usual interpretations of his views on the connections between morality, justice, and convention.
 
Hume rejects any conception of moral beliefs and moral truths. He understands morality in terms of distinctive desires and other sentiments that arise through the correction of sympathy. He represents moral desires as prior to the other moral sentiments. Morality, he holds, in part presupposes conventions for mutual interest; it is not, however itself a matter of convention.
 
Mind and Morality demonstrates that Hume's sophisticated moral conativism sets a challenge that recent cognitivist theories of moral judgement cannot readily meet, and his subtle treatment of the interplay of morality and convention suggests significant limitations to recent conventionalist and contractarian accounts of morality's content.
 
Haakonssen, Knud, ed., Enlightenment and Religion: Rational Dissent in Eighteenth-Century Britain, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1996.
 
This book reassesses the relationship between Enlightenment and religion in England. It has long been accepted that liberal, rational dissenters developed an Enlightenment agenda, but most literature on this topic is out of date. These interdisciplinary essays provide a fresh analysis of rational dissent within English Enlightenment culture from a variety of viewpoints. Its wide perspective and new research make Enlightenment and Religion an important and original contribution to eighteenth-century studies.
 

Call for Papers
 
TWENTY-FIFTH
HUME SOCIETY CONFERENCE
 
UNIVERSITY OF STIRLING, SCOTLAND
 
July 20 - 24, 1998
 
Conference Co-Directors:
Jane McIntyre, (Cleveland State University, USA)
Peter Millican, (University of Leeds, England)
Tony Pitson, (University of Stirling, Scotland)
 
The Hume Society is pleased to announce a call for papers for its twenty-fifth anniversary conference, to be held in Stirling, Scotland, July 20 - 24, 1998. Since this will also be the 250th anniversary of the initial publication of Hume's first Enquiry, papers directly concerned with topics from this work and with the development of Hume's philosophy after the Treatise, will be especially welcome. However, papers on any aspect of Hume's life and works will be considered.
 

Papers should be no more than thirty minutes reading length with self-references deleted for blind reviewing; the author's name should appear only on a front cover sheet. Papers may be in English, French or German, but an abstract in English is required for all papers. Authors are requested to submit papers and abstracts in triplicate.
 

The Hume Society has set aside up to $1000 for the support of graduate students reading papers at the annual Hume Society meetings, to be given at the discretion of the Conference Co-Directors to those whose papers have been accepted through the normal vetting process.
 

Submissions must be postmarked by November 1, 1997.
 
Send papers to:
 
Professor Saul Traiger
Executive Secretary of the Hume Society
Department of Philosophy
Occidental College
Los Angeles, CA 90041-3314
USA

 
 

Business Meeting of Twenty-third Hume Conference - July 18, 1996

Secretary-Treasurer's Report
 

Membership stands at 435, an increase of 5% from last year. The Society's new website is an important source of new members. The treasury stands at $20,079.93 as of 5/31/96. Occidental College continues to cover all the regular operating expenses of the secretary-treasurer's office.

As a result of the action of the Executive Committee, the Society will set aside up to $1000 for support of graduate students reading papers at the annual Hume Society meetings, to be given at the discretion of the Conference directors to those whose papers have been accepted through the normal vetting process. It is presumed that these grants will be distributed in a fair way, with the same amounts to everyone the presumption, and it is presumed that not all the $1000 need be spent. This action is to be in effect for two years only, to be reconsidered after that time. The EC also voted that we not impose a surcharge on checks drawn from non-US banks, that we encourage everyone to pay be credit card, pointing out that it costs the Society to cover check conversion costs for non-US checks. This change will begin in 1997.
 
Terms on the Executive Committee will expire for Charlotte Brown, Geoff Sayre McCord and Stephen Darwall at the end of 1996. Darwall is eligible for a second term. Terms of office for Wade Robison, President and Saul Traiger, Executive Secretary-Treasurer will expire in 1997. Robison is not eligible for re-election. Traiger is eligible for re-appointment by the Executive Committee, but he will not seek a second term.
 

President's Report
 
The Executive Committee of the Hume Society meets continuously by e-mail, and among its items of business this past year, we considered the status of the International Corresponding Members. Their role is to provide support for Hume studies and for the Society in their countries, serving as a liaison between the Society and those scholars in their countries concerned to further the study of Hume. They receive a free membership to the Society for their services. It was decided that we should provide for a more regular reporting system than we currently have, asking for them to report on what they have done to increase Hume Society membership, for instance, so that we could have a better idea what the Society might be able to do to further encourage Hume scholarship.
 
This past year I asked for the members of the Society to contact me if they had any concerns about how the Society was being run, how it was organized, what it was planning on doing, and so on. I heard not a word, but I would urge any who do have concerns to contact me. Otherwise the presumption will be made that everything is fine, and faults will not be corrected. I am in the process of drafting a "Guide for Conferences" so that those planning future conferences will not always have to start afresh. I would be delighted to hear from any members who have suggestions for that. In response to a concern expressed at the Nottingham business meeting, the Executive Committee will soon be considering whether to require that copies of papers and comments at the Conferences be available at the Conference. Even for those of us whose native tongue is English, having copies would help our understanding of a paper's point and also further discussion. So that is one example of how your comments can help further the Society's aims.

The Conference site for next year is Monterey, California, and those who wish further information about it should first look at the website for the conference and then, if they have further questions, contact Elizabeth Radcliffe.
 
The Conference site for 1998 is Stirling, Scotland. Tony Pitson is the on-site director, and Jane McIntyre and Peter Millican are the co-directors. In accepting Peter's offer to put on the Conference in commemoration of the 250th anniversary of the publication of the first Enquiry, the committee hoped that it would be held at Leeds or some relevantly similar city in England or Scotland. Tony has graciously agreed to have it in Stirling. The Executive Committee voted to switch the on-off pattern for 1999/2000 so that we are meeting off the North American continent in 1999 rather than on. That was to take advantage of a suggestion by David Raynor that we meet in Ireland in conjunction with the Enlightenment Congress to be held at

University College Dublin July 25th through August 1st. John Biro and Mikael Karlsson worked out the details, and we are meeting in Cork. Desmond Clarke (Cork) and Steve Darwall (Michigan) are the co-directors. Desmond is to be assisted by his colleague, Garrett Barden, who is currently President of the Irish Philosophical Society. This conference is to be held July 19th through the 23rd, jointly with the Irish Philosophical Society, and immediately prior to the Enlightenment Congress. It should be noted that Hume "visited Cork for several weeks when returning from the expedition to the coast of France with General St. Clair in 1747 and planned to move there...in 1764 or so...but was persuaded it would be too dangerous both for himself and his patron Lord Hertford, who was Lord Lieutenant of Ireland."
 
The Executive Committee solicits offers for 2000 and 2001. It is presumed that both of these meetings are to be on the North American continent. That would return us to the normal on/off pattern, and 2002 would thus see a conference off the North American continent.
 

Progress Report
1997 Hume Conference
 
Editor's Note: The following is a synopsis of Professor Tatsuya Sakamoto's report at the business meeting in Nottingham. Professor Sakamoto is one of three co-directors of the 1997 Hume Conference, and he has been charged with organizing sessions involving Japanese Hume scholars.
 
The Japanese speakers for the 1997 Conference have been almost settled and an invitation for a special guest speaker has been readily accepted. There will be six speakers in all which is one more than anticipated when the initial arrangements were made at the Park City conference. This is mainly because of the quick and enthusiastic response of the six to our invitation and we found it rather difficult to persuade either one of them not to join but also because we though it might possibly, but not desirably, happen that either one or two of them withdrew at the final stage. The names, their affiliations, their majors and their proposed topics are as follows:
 
Masaki ICHINOSE, Tokyo University, Philosophy, "Hume's three concepts of cause"

Toshihiko ISE, Ritsumeikan University, Philosophy, "Hume on the obligation of promise"

Hitoshi TAMURA, Nagoya University, Philosophy, "The Modern Concept of Man and the problem of Personal Identity in Hume"

Tohru SAKURAI, Kobe University, Jurisprudence, "The Correlation between Hume's Theory of Ideas and his Liberalism"

Satoshi NIIMURA, Okayama University, History of Economic Thought, "The Difference between Hume's and Smith's Concepts of Sympathy"

Tomoko MORITA, Seikei University, History of Political Thought, "The Liberty in David Hume"

The variety among the speakers' main subject fields and their chosen topics is impressive and arguably represents the present state of Hume studies in Japan. The age and gender composition of them (all of them in their late thirties and early forties and one female included, i.e. .Ms. MORITA) is noteworthy. Furthermore, we invited Professor Ryuei TSUESHITA, Emeritus, Tokyo University, as the special guest speaker. He is certainly one of the pioneering and the most authoritative scholars on Hume and the Anglo-American Philosophy in general. It is additionally important that he is President of the Japanese Society for the History of British Philosophy and will continue to be so at the time of the conference.

Besides, these main speakers, Kiyoshi SHIMOKAWA, Takao KATSURAGI, and possibly myself wish to work as commentators on the papers by non-Japanese speakers in line with the original agreement. Though we actually promised five commentators, as the number of the speakers increased from the original agreement, we thought that the reduced number of the commentators might be acceptable to the non-Japanese participants. As a matter of fact, these three are the core members of the newly-formed Hume Study Group here and they found it preferable to step aside from the group of the main speakers and to give as much opportunity as possible to other active members of the group.

The Kemp Smith Critique on the Web
 

The following is an account of the World Wide Web edition of Immanuel Kant's Critique of Pure Reason, translated by Norman Kemp Smith. The website and search engine is the work of Tze-wan Kwan at Chinese University of Hong Kong, using the electronic text prepared by Stephen Palmquist of the Hong Kong Baptist University. The account below was written by Tze-wan Kwan and may be found on the website as well. ( http://www.arts.cuhk.edu.hk/Philosophy/Kant/cpr/)
 

Kant's Critique of Pure Reason is no doubt one of the greatest books of Western philosophy. The book is epoch-making both as the foundation stone of Kant's "critical philosophy" and as a watershed dividing the dogmatic and critical mode of thinking in the history of Western philosophy. Kant published this work in two editions in his own life time, appeared in 1781 and in 1787 respectively, usually referred to as Edition A and Edition B) The translation of the Critique from the German original into English has also a long history. Schopenhauer nearly became the first translator if he followed through his original intention. To this day the English speaking world has seen three translations of the Critique. The first translation was published by J.M.D. Meiklejohn in 1855. The second translation appeared in 1881 through the labour of Max Müller. These two translations, making use of the second and the first original edition respectively, were very soon superseded by the third translation provided by Norman Kemp Smith in 1929.

To satisfy the English readership's urge for a translation that covers both of Kant's original versions Kemp Smith based his translation not on either of the editions alone, but on a parallel edition (with A/B paginations) provided by Raymund Schmidt (1925/26). Kemp Smith excelled his two predecessors in being himself a dedicated Kant scholar. His Kant scholarship, though very much challenged today, is testified by his A Commentary to Kant's 'Critique of Pure Reason which appeared as early as 1918.

The HKBU edition: The electronic version of Kemp Smith's text was originally prepared by Stephen Palmquist of the Hong Kong Baptist University. The text was placed in the Oxford Text Archive in 1985 for private dissemination.
 
Palmquist scanned in and repeatedly proofread the text over years of personal use. In preparing the electronic text, page numbers of the English text (but not the original A/B pagination) were reproduced. Line structures (including all end-of-line hyphens) were also preserved (by using the <pre> and </pre> markup tags). With these two features, the electronic text prepared by Palmquist conforms by and large with the page layout of the paper version of the Kemp Smith text as was published by the MacMillan Book Company.
 
Palmquist also used the Oxford Concordance Program (OCP) to generate a concordance and a word index for the Kemp Smith translation. The WWW version of the Kemp Smith text together with the concordance and index output files (not online searchable) made their first appearance in October 1995, in the Hong Kong Baptist University where Steve is working.
 
The CUHK edition: Soon after the appearance of Kemp Smith's translation of the Critique at the HKBU, initiative was taken at the Chinese University of Hong Kong to further process the text. The first step was to set up an online searchable index and have it appended to the HKBU edition of the Kemp Smith text, enhancing thus the overall value of the electronic edition of the Critique.
 
Basic features of the online search engine: 1.Boolean operation supported; 2.Text unit(s), line number(s) (with reference to file containing the text unit), and the line(s) of text containing search argument(s) returned for each matching string; 3.Clicking on the index output brings the user to the very line of the respective text unit.
 
After the construction of the online search engine, it gradually turns out that, for the search engine to be effective, some major modifications have to be made on the text database files themselves. In this regard, we again have to thank Palmquist for giving his consent for such a move. He even sent us some of the original working copies of his database to facilitate the setup of this present CUHK edition. For timing and manpower reasons, the restructuring of the text database files has to be carried out in stages, starting with more urgent and structural related matters. Other more labour intensive work has to be done sometime in the future, probably during summer vacation!
 
Modifications made in the CUHK edition: 1.The Critique is divided into 21 (instead of 8 as in the HKBU edition) text units, each entailing a more or less unique theme of philosophical significance. Shorter text units also quicken text retrieval; 2.While still maintaining the page layout and line structure of the English text, all end-of-line hyphens (except hard hyphens) are removed. The dehyphenated words are put either at the end of the preceding line or at the beginning of the following line (depending on calculation with a Perl script). Removal of end-of-line hyphens was necessary for more accurate search results; 3.The online search engine has been debugged and revised to work on this new (CUHK) edition; 4.An internal page/line concordance was created so that, in the search output, page numbers of the MacMillan text together with line numbers (with reference to the respective pages) are returned. In this way, our online search engine becomes an indispensable tool for all serious students of Kant using the MacMillan text of the Critique.
 
Modifications planned for the future: 1.The Original A/B pagination will be restored; 2.All original footnotes will be separated from the main text to improve text flow; 3.All alternative readings (Lesearten), emendations etc. left out in the HKBU edition will be reinstated; 4.The online search engine will be overhauled to keep in line with whatever changes made.
 
E-Mail the EC
 
To facilitate communication with the Executive Committee, a special e-mail address has been set up by Peter Millican. To send a message to members of the EC, direct your mail to humemail@scs.leeds.ac.uk. The EC asks that you use this address only to communicate matters for the entire executive committee. Business e-mail correspondence, such as membership information, should be addressed to the Executive Secretary-Treasurer.