Fall 1997, Vol. XXVI, No. 2

Bulletin of the

Department of Philosophy - Occidental College, Los Angeles, California 90041, USA

Editor's Notes

This is my tenth and final issue as editor of the Bulletin of the Hume Society and as executive secretary-treasurer of the Hume Society. I inherited a position with clearly stated responsibilities and established procedures, thanks to my predecessor, Dorothy Coleman. Dorothy's ground-breaking work for the Society paved the way for the refinements which I've tried to put in place. Through these last five years, Wade Robison provided encouragement, support, advice and friendship. The Executive Committee's non-stop global e-mail deliberations insured that the even smallest details received more than adequate scrutiny! My interactions with members of Society have been delightful. We have an extraordinary Society of individuals who are both accomplished scholars and nice people.

The Hume Society is 50% larger than it was five years ago (We've just reached 500 members!) and it is almost $20,000 wealthier. Two individuals, neither of whom is a member of the Society, played a significant role in this growth. Dr. David Axeen, Dean of the Faculty at Occidental College, funded all the routine expenses of the Society during my term of office. As a result, we were able to save half of the annual dues for the Society's endowment, and send the other half to Hume Studies to cover subscription costs. Carolyn Adams, administrative assistant for the Department of Philosophy at Occidental College, handled financial transactions, the maintenance of the database, the printing of Society publications, and other tasks too numerous to list here. Carolyn's ability to work through and solve problems as they appeared has been crucial to the stability and growth of the Society. During the academic year 1996-97 Carolyn was transferred to another department at the College. During the year she was away, she continued to do the Hume Society work, returning to the department every few days to see to what had to be done. Happily, she's back working with the Philosophy Department this year.

Two Hume Society members merit special mention here. They are David Fate Norton and M.A. Stewart. David and Sandy are always on the lookout for information of particular interest to members of the Society. Almost every issue of this Bulletin contained material which was made known to me by one or the other of them. I appreciate their awareness of my role as editor and their thoughtful contributions to this publication.

Our growth in numbers and resources will enable the Society to do an even better job supporting Hume scholarship. The Society has always emphasized its support for graduate students. Until this year that support was, though real, merely moral. Beginning this year we will make travel funds available to graduate student papers selected for the annual conference through the normal vetting process.

Mikael Karlsson, executive secretary-treasurer-elect, and I are in the midst of transferring documents and funds from Los Angeles to Reykjavik. Thanks to the Internet, the transfer will be both swift and inexpensive. Mike is fully prepared to take control of the Society's business office. His extraordinary organizational and leadership skills will lead to new improvements and services, and the move of the Society's business office to a location outside the U.S. is a welcome sign of the internationalization of the Society.

I appreciate the kind remarks lavished on me both in these pages and at the banquet in Monterey. My thanks go to all members of the Hume Society for their support and encouragement during these last five years. It has been a pleasure to be secretary-treasurer.

Saul Traiger, Executive Secretary-Treasurer

President's Remarks

Wade Robison leaves the presidency of the Hume Society after 14 years as our fearless leader. In honor of his long tenure, he's been granted extra space in this issue for the President's report. Please see pages 6-8 for that report. It's fitting that this issue close with Wade's remarks.

A Message from the Secretary-Treasurer-elect of the Hume Society, Mikael M. Karlsson (University of Iceland)

I am honored by the trust which the Hume Society has placed in me in appointing me Executive Secretary-Treasurer for the five-year period 1998-2002. I suppose I should begin by saying that it will be hard to follow the act of the current office-holder, Saul Traiger; and that is most certainly true in the sense that it will be difficult, if not impossible, to do as good a job as Saul has done; he has indeed been exemplary. But everyone knows that! In another sense, Saul's act will be a particularly easy one to follow, because he has kept the Society's affairs in such terrifically good order, has refined and developed its procedures, and has been so extraordinarily helpful and conscientious about the transition (upon which we began to work together in February of this year), that moving the records and services associated with the office of Executive Secretary-Treasurer to Iceland will be (and already has been) relatively effortless for me and my staff at this end. So, thank you, Saul! Yet again. Saul has invited me to send a few words to the membership through the Bulletin about the arrangements that have been made in Iceland.

First, and very important, the transition becomes effective on

January 1st, 1998 (not yet, folks!). So members are asked to continue dealing with the Society through Saul until that date. PLEASE do not send any membership applications, payments, nominations or other such items to me prior to the beginning of 1998. On the other hand, Saul will be grateful

NOT to receive things of this sort after January 1st.

Effective January 1st, 1998, the postal address of the Hume Society will be

                               The Hume Society

                               University of Iceland

                               Main Building

                               IS-101 Reykjavik


For my own academic address, simply substitute my name for "The Hume Society". My office telephone number is (354) 525-4351; if telephoning, please keep in mind that Iceland is on Greenwich Mean Time throughout the year. My office fax number is (354) 552-1331; the use of fax for Society business is discouraged in favor of e-mail, to the extent that this is possible.

The Society's Internet services will continue without interruption and, indeed, will continue to be developed. First access will be through the Hume Society's homepage, whose web address will change (effective January 1st, 1998!) to


Through the homepage, it will remain possible to access back issues of the Bulletin of the Hume Society, to join the Society, and so on, just as it is at present. As Executive Secretary-Treasurer, I plan to follow up on Saul Traiger's initiative and to make more information, and a wider variety of services, available to members and friends of the Society on the Internet. Suggestions for new developments and improvements will be most welcome! The Society's e-mail address will be

            &nbs p;          hume@rhi.hi.is

Hume will be unable to answer his mail personally, so it will come to me. If it is intended for the Society's Executive Committee, I will forward it to the EC-list.

Banking services for the Society are already in place. Members will be able to make payments to the Society (for example, dues payments) by direct transfer, bank check (not personal check) or credit card. I will make a strong effort to encourage credit-card payments, which should normally be the easiest and cheapest mode of payment, both for members and for the Society. The Society will no longer be able to advertise that members may pay "in any currency". However, if paying by transfer or check, members will be able to denominate payments in any Western European or North American currency, or in Japanese yen. The Society will not be able to accept all credit cards, but payments can be made through the two largest credit-card systems, namely VISA and MasterCard (Eurocard, Access). Because of advantageous contracts made with the Agricultural Bank of

Iceland, and with the VISA and Eurocard offices in Iceland, the Society will, it appears, have to pay less for banking and credit-card services than formerly.

The Executive Secretary-Treasurer's office will continue to edit, publish and distribute Bulletin of the Hume Society twice yearly. As in the past, the Bulletin will inform members about important Hume Society affairs, up-coming conferences, new members, and such like. No major changes in the Bulletin are planned. However, I feel that with the advent and rapid expansion of Internet services, the Bulletin is now of ever-diminishing importance, and during 1998 I will feel out the membership, and consult with the Executive Committee, about the future role of the Bulletin.

My appointment is a token of the international character of the Hume Society, of which I have been a vocal exponent; and as Executive Secretary-Treasurer I plan to work energetically to augment this character.

My main message, however, is only this: (the famous "bottom line"!) You may all be assured that I will do my very best to continue the high standards which have been set by Saul Traiger and other former Executive Secretary-Treasurers of the Hume Society.

News from Members

John Biro will give a Franklin J. Matchette Foundation Lecture entitled "Hume's New Science of the Mind" at The Catholic University of America, in the fall, 1997 series Mind/Matter from Antiquity. The talk will take place on Friday, October 31, 1997 at 2 p.m. in the auditorium of the Life Cycle Institute. For more information, please call 202-319-5259.

Call for Papers: Sixth ISSEI Conference



Contributions are invited for the above workshop.

Philosophical perspectives from the Humanities, the Social Sciences and the Natural Sciences are welcome. Philosophies of the Enlightenment are not limited to any particular school of thought or to any particular philosophical persuasion. Ideally, we would like a workshop that is rich and diversified in its composition and in its intellectual makeup.

Please send a one-page abstract, approx. 150-200 words BEFORE 1 NOV. 1997:

Prof. Stanley Tweyman, Dept. of Philosophy, York Univ., Glendon College, 2275 Bayview Ave., Toronto, Ontario, Canada, M4n 3m6, Canada, Fax: +1-416-487-6728. PH. +1-416-487-6733


Prof. David A. Freeman, Dept. of Political Science, Washburn Univ., 1700 College Ave., Topeka, Kansas, 66621, USA Fax: +1-913-232-5744 PH: +1-913-231-1010 EXT. 1318

Calls for Papers

Mid-South Philosophy Conference

University of Memphis, Tennessee, USA

February 27-28, 1998

The 22nd annual Mid-South Philosophy Conference is scheduled for Friday afternoon and Saturday, February 27-28, at the University of Memphis. Papers on any topic of philosophic interest are welcomed.  Papers are limited to 25 minutes reading time (normally, 12 double-spaced pages).

Submit THREE printed copies as well as a copy in WordPerfect or ASCII format on a computer diskette (papers also may be submitted via the Internet, preferably in ASCII). all copies must include a 100-word abstract, the paper's title, author's name, institutional affiliation, mailing address, email address, and telephone number.  Papers which do not meet these guidelines will not be considered. send submissions to

Professor James B. Sauer

Department of Philosophy

Saint Mary's University

1 Camino Santa Maria

San Antonio

Texas  78228-8566


Papers must be submitted by JANUARY 7.  Papers will be reviewed by a committee, and notification of acceptance will be made in late January. Each paper will have a commentator. Those interested in commenting should notify Professor Sauer no later than January 23 of availability and areas of interest.  His email address is philjim@stmarytx.edu and his telephone number is 210-431-6860.

Professor OWEN FLANAGAN of Duke University will be the keynote speaker. Funding for the keynote speaker is provided by the University of Memphis Center for the Humanities, directed by Professor Thomas Nenon.

Professor Nenon has reserved rooms for Friday (2/27) and Saturday (2/28) at the Holiday Inn Midtown on 1837 Union Avenue, a ten minute drive from campus.  The room rate is $59.00 per night.  Make reservations directly; the hotel's telephone number is 901-278-4100.  The airport shuttle goes to the hotel for ten dollars.

Please encourage students to attend and submit papers to the University of Memphis UNDERGRADUATE PHILOSOPHY CONFERENCE, which will be running parallel sessions.  Papers may be on any area of philosophy and should be able to be read in less than 30 minutes (preference will be given to well-focused shorter papers).  Papers must be submitted by JANUARY 23; review of submissions will begin on January 12. send TWO printed copies with a 100-word abstract to Undergraduate Philosophy Conference, Department of Philosophy, University of Memphis, Memphis, TN 38152.  Include a telephone number or email address.

The Mid-South Philosophy Conference is supported and underwritten by the Philosophy Department and Center for the Humanities of the University of Memphis, as well as by the Philosophy Department and Institute of Liberal Arts of Oklahoma City University.

Visit the Mid-South Philosophy Conference's website at


First International Reid Symposium

King's College, University of Aberdeen

Scotland, 27-29 July 1998

The Department of Philosophy, University of Aberdeen has

recently established a major new initiative entitled 'The Reid Project'. The aims of the Project are to stimulate, coordinate and support interest in Thomas Reid, the Philosophy of Common Sense, the extensive manuscript holding pertaining to them in the Aberdeen University Library, and their place within contemporary philosophical discussion and the intellectual traditions of Aberdeen, Scotland, Britain, Europe and America.

One of the main means in which these aims will be pursued

is through a series of Reid Symposia, the first of which will be held at King's College Aberdeen on 27-29 July 1998. Proposals for papers should be sent by 1 March 1998 to the

Director of the Reid Project

Dr M. Rosa Antognazza

Department of Philosophy,

King's College

Old Aberdeen AB24 3UB

Tel / Fax +44-(0)1224-272366


Details of The Reid Project and of the journal *Reid Studies* can be found on the World Wide Web at http//www.abdn.ac.uk/cpts/reidstu.htm.

Recent Books and Monographs

Baier, Annette C., The Commons of the Mind, (Chicago: Open Court, 1997)

Based on Annette Baier's lectures given at the American Philosophical Association Eastern Division Meeting in December, 1995, this volume examines the different philosophies of mind -- whether mind is something possessed by each individual, independently of membership in a culture or society or whether it is essentially a product of the individual's social environment. Baier discusses the relation between individual and shared reasoning, intending, and moral reflection, in each case emphasizing the interdependence of minds and the role of social practices in setting the norms governing these mental activities.

M. A. Stewart, ed., Studies in Seventeenth-Century European Philosophy (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1997) Oxford Studies in the History of Philosophy Volume 2 256 pp. September 1997 (tentative)

This is a collection of new, specially written essays on the flowering of modern philosophy on the continent of Europe. The eight leading contributors focus on the work of Descartes, later Cartesians, Leibniz, and Bayle, reassessing the influence of Augustine on Descartes and of the Reformed tradition on Leibniz, and tracing anticipations of Leibniz's monadology in the cabbalistic notions of van Helmont, the preformationist theories of Malebranche, and the experimental work of Dutch microscopists.

Malcolm, Noel, ed., The Correspondence of Thomas Hobbes, Volume I: 1622-1659 (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1997) Clarendon Edition of the Works of Thomas Hobbes 592 pp., line drawings. September 1997 (tentative)

Thomas Hobbes (1588-1679) is one of the most important figures in the history of European thought. Although interest in his life and work has grown enormously in recent years, this is the first complete edition of his correspondence. The texts of the letters are richly supplemented with explanatory notes and full biographical and bibliographical information. This landmark publication sheds new light in abundance on the intellectual life of a major thinker.

Call for Papers
July 19 - 23, 1999
Conference Co-Directors:
Stephen Darwall, (University of Michigan, USA)
Desmond Clarke (University College Cork, Ireland)
with the assistance of
Garrett Barden (University College Cork, Ireland)

The Hume Society is pleased to announce a call for papers for its twenty-sixth anniversary conference, to be held in Cork, Ireland, July 19-23, 1999. (The 10th Enlightenment Congress will be held July 25-31 at University College, Dublin.) The theme for the conference -- "Society and Mind" -- is to be construed broadly, to include Hume on the mind, society, social aspects of mind, mental aspects of society, and so on. Papers bearing some relation to the theme will be especially welcome; however, papers on any aspect of Hume's life and works will be considered.

Papers should be no more than thirty minutes reading length with self-references deleted for blind reviewing; the author's name should appear only on a front cover sheet. Papers may be in English, French or German, but an abstract in English is required for all papers. Authors are requested to submit papers and abstracts in triplicate.

The Hume Society has set aside up to $1000 for the support of graduate students reading papers at the annual Hume Society meetings, to be given at the discretion of the Conference Co-Directors to those whose papers have been accepted through the normal vetting process.

Submissions must be postmarked by November 1, 1998.
Send papers to:
Professor Mikael M. Karlsson
Executive Secretary of the Hume Society
University of Iceland
Main Building
IS-101 Reykjavik

Business Meeting of Twenty-third Hume Conference - August 1, 1997

Secretary-Treasurer's Report

Membership stands at 480, an increase of 10.3% from last year. Almost all requests for membership information now arrive through the Society's website. The treasury stands at $24,106.23 as of 7/17/97.

Terms on the Executive Committee will expire for Jane McIntyre at the end of 1997. Jane is eligible for a second term. Terms of office for Wade Robison, President and Saul Traiger, Executive Secretary-Treasurer will expire in 1997. Wade is not eligible for re-election. Calls for nominations for the vacant seat on the EC and the position of President will go out in late August. The Executive Committee elected Mikael Karlsson of the University of Iceland to the office of executive secretary-treasurer. Karlsson's five year term begins on January 1, 1998.

There will be some changes in the processing of membership dues when the business office moves to Iceland. The Society will accept bank drafts or personal checks from North America (in US$ or CA$), and bank drafts or Eurochecks (but not personal checks) from elsewhere in any Western European currency or in Japanese Yen. This is a change from our policy of accepting checks in any currency. It is likely that the Society will drop the 5% surcharge on credit card payments.

Saul Traiger

Executive Secretary-Treasurer

President's Report

When I became Chair of the Executive Committee 14 years ago, I discovered, to my dismay, that matters were in disarray. The Society had no money; at one point the treasury had $43 and some odd cents in it. The records were a mess. A friend said that when he called a Secretary Treasurer to ask why he was not getting Hume Studies, he was told, 'Oh! Your application must have been one of the ones that blew away at the airport.' Hume Studies belonged to the Department of Philosophy at Western Ontario, and the Society had no say in its administration or editorial policy. The Society's governing structure was such that the Chair of the Executive Committee and the Secretary-Treasurer effectively ran the organization. And the Society was trying to put together conferences every year at the last minute, scrounging up sites and cobbling together speaker programs, with heavy burdens of organization falling on the Chair and the Secretary-Treasurer. I feared that the organization would collapse under the weight of its problems.

I set a number of goals for the Society -- to have a new Constitution, laying out an organizational structure that would help ensure the Society's continued existence and regularize its operations; to encourage the very best of scholarship by having a procedure that would ensure, as best imperfect procedures can, that those whose papers were accepted for a conference had had their papers vetted by their peers in blind-review and by encouraging intense discussion of papers at conferences, by having commentators and plenty of time for questions from the audience, with the idea that all those who read papers should realize that no paper is without its problems and that each paper may be improved by taking seriously the thoughtful and civil comments of other scholars; to encourage younger scholars; to condition the appointment of any new secretary treasurer on the ability of his or her institution to cover the expenses associated with that position; to make order out of the chaotic records and provide for a system to sustain the order; to form a new journal for the Society or to obtain Hume Studies; to ensure that the costs of being a member and obtaining its journal be reasonable so that those who have newly entered the profession, including graduate students, could afford to join; to have a simple but elegant bulletin for the Society with news of various matters of interest to the Society's members; to increase the number of members of the Society; to try to increase the number of members from off the North American continent; to change the representation of the Society, getting younger members of the profession to join, ensuring that those women who work on Hume were encouraged to join, and working to get those from disciplines other than philosophy to join; and, as I have said, to ensure that the Society was run by its Executive Committee and not simply by the Chair or the Secretary-Treasurer.

Hume argues in 'That politics may be reduced to a science' that forms of governance matter the worst of 'governors' can do little harm if the form of governance is well-conceived and realized, and the best can do little good if the form is ill-conceived or badly realized. My aim was to ensure that the Society would be governed by elected representatives of the members, that it would have a governance structure that would allow it to endure, and that the structure would provide for the kind of society in which scholarship would be encouraged amidst a community of civility, mutual respect, and good cheer.

The Executive Committee produced a new constitution while I was Chair, thanks primarily to Jim King. It created the office of President, in place of the chair of the Executive Committee, and I was elected President in the first election under the new Constitution. Indeed, I am almost embarrassed to say, I have been President four times -- the Roosevelt of Hume studies -- and have headed the Society for 14 of the

24 years it has been in existence. And I think most of the goals I set have been achieved.

The Executive Committee now meets in continuous session, via e mail, and though its business is usually humdrum, members can be assured - and here I speak from experience

- that any ideas regarding the Society must meet the test of approval from a wide variety of different individual members of the EC who are not at all hesitant to make their views known and will sometimes wrangle for months to ensure that what they think the right course for the Society is given a full hearing. The process is slow, but relatively sure. More importantly, it prevents any President or Secretary-Treasurer from initiating any policies regarding the Society on his or her own.

Thanks to Dorothy Coleman first and now Saul Traiger, the Society's records are in order, computerized and ready to be handed on to Mikael Karlsson, the next Secretary-Treasurer. Dorothy began a Bulletin for the Society that is published twice yearly; it is simple but elegant. Bowdoin College and then William & Mary supported Dorothy's work for the Society, Occidental has supported Saul's, and the University of Iceland is to support Mikael's. The result is that the treasury now has over $25,000 in it, more than enough to satisfy the goal the Executive Committee set of covering the expenses of publishing Hume Studies for two years should, at any time, we not be able to find an editor in a university willing to pay for the expenses associated with publishing it. The Society has been blessed with two superb Secretary-Treasurers who have done more than their fair share of work in making the Society a viable organization, in no danger now of collapsing. And we are to be blessed with a third, in Mikael.

I do not know how many members the Society had when I became Chair of the Executive Committee. The record said 150 or so, but it was untrustworthy. We now have almost 500 members -- thanks primarily to Dorothy and Saul. The webpage Saul recently created for the Society has produced a great many new members. In addition, the pattern of our conferences, with one overseas every other year in such places as Rome and Edinburgh, has attracted interest and increased membership both on and off the North American continent. And the NEH Institute I directed

with David Norton in 1990 accounted for some increase in membership while setting the note of good scholarship, civility and good cheer that I think ought to be the hallmark of the organization.

We have a good representation of new Hume scholars and those who joined the Society when it was first formed or shortly thereafter. We have a good representation of overseas members and of women-- though there is always room for improvement. We have not succeeded yet in attracting large numbers of scholars from other disciplines, but that is a goal we should continue to aim for.

Obtaining a journal for the Society proved more difficult than it might appear. On the one hand, some members wished the Society to wash its hands of Hume Studies and create a new journal entirely, one I thought that, among its other problems, would be much too expensive for most of its members. On the other hand, we set conditions for obtaining Hume Studies that made negotiations more difficult than they might have been we wanted none of its debts and none of its editors' obligations, and we wanted absolute ownership, with full rights over setting new policy, appointing new editors, and so on. Though extensive and time-consuming, negotiations I had with the Department of Philosophy at Western Ontario were friendly and finally productive.

The Society took over Hume Studies, setting a policy for how it ought to be run and appointing new editors, Don Garrett and Ted Morris, who have done a superb job in recasting Hume Studies and maintaining editorial neutrality in selecting papers while well representing the various strands of thought among Hume scholars.

The Society has conferences every year, now following the pattern of being on the North American continent in odd-numbered years and off in even-numbered years. The aim is to ensure that the Society really is an international society so that Hume scholars all over the world can be a part of a larger community than they will find in their native countries. The Executive Committee appoints two conference directors, one on-site to handle the business of running a conference, the other off-site to chair the Reading Committee, which referees papers, with both to work out who shall be invited to speak and the organizational structure of the Conference. Matters are so arranged that not even the Chair of the Reading Committee knows who has submitted papers until he or she notifies the Secretary-Treasurer which papers were accepted and which rejected. One consequence of this procedure is that conference directors cannot readily bypass the vetting process to put friends on the program whose papers were rejected.

Matters are also so arranged that the burdens of putting on Conferences falls on the Conference directors rather than the President of the Society or the Secretary-Treasurer. The directors get all the credit for a great conference, the Executive Committee and the President and Secretary-Treasurer only the credit for having the wisdom to choose

directors who put on a great conference.

I have not written this to laud myself. The credit for the changes in the Society since I became Chair of the Executive Committee and then President of the Society primarily belongs to others such as Dorothy Coleman, Saul Traiger, and the members of the Executive Committee over the years who have generally been able to keep me on the straight and

narrow. But contingent arrangements can seem arbitrary --and so easy enough lightly to change -- unless we understand the rationale behind them. Having every other meeting off the North American continent excludes the larger number of the Society's members from attending, for example, since most members are Americans and travel costs are high. But the Society cannot claim to be an international society, gain members overseas, or support Hume studies everywhere unless we have such meetings. It is important for the members of the Society to understand that the Society is as well-positioned as it now is because the particular configuration of its structures and procedures, though contingent, has encouraged good effects. That is not to say that changes for the better cannot be made, but when changes are made, they need to be measured against the goals of the Society.

So I write at length in part to explain to the membership that what might seem peculiarities of the Society's structure -- its absurdly low dues rate given that a journal is provided -- are based on principle. I also write at length to do what I can to leave a legacy for others to continue.

I had expected to be crowned Emperor of the Society at the end of my reign -- in a position to ensure that my ends for the Society would continue to dominate its affairs for many years to come--  but it appears that I have been unable to convince the other members of the Executive Committee to change the Constitution to elevate me. Instead, you have honored me with life membership in the society, with a wonderful set of Hume from 1793 and with your friendship and kindness for many years past.

It is the least I can do to return the favor. I now have a house, built in 1827, large enough to accommodate several Humeans at once, and if you make it this way, you are cordially invited to stay. It is on 26 wooded acres, with a one-acre pond, four working fireplaces, including two wood burning stoves, and three bedrooms. All the old wood beams are exposed, and the floors are chestnut and pine, with the widest chestnut board being 27 1/4 inches -- from a huge tree! It is a pleasant place to live and a pleasant place for company. You will not need to bow down to me if you should come, only let me know ahead-of-time (wlrgsh@rit.edu) and be willing to share the space and your time with Scout, my new yellow lab pup who has a rich emotional life and is providing evidence continually that Hume was right that animals can reason.

I cannot end without thanking everyone who made things so easy and effective and pleasant these past 14 years -- Dorothy Coleman and Saul Traiger, of course, all the members of the Executive Committee over the years, and especially all those who gave me political advice, teaching me strategies I have been able to put to good use elsewhere. I cut some new political teeth over the past 14 years, and I need to thank John

Biro, among others, for passing on his political acumen to me. He is a marvelous political dentist. But I need to thank all of you. The members of the Hume Society are the nicest group of people I have ever met. It would have been an honor being your Emperor. It will be enough of an honor, however, to remain your friends.

Wade L. Robison

New Members

Nafstad, Petter; University of Tromso, N-9037 Tromso, Norway

Noll, Aaron; Houghton College, Houghton, New York

O'Connor, David; Seton Hall University, South Oragne, NJ

O'Shea, Jim; University College Dublin, Dublin, Ireland

Pajewski, Alessandro; L'Aquila, , Italy

Povlich, Jamey John; South Milwaukee, WI

Rosenzweig, Warren; Brooklyn, NY

Sainsbury, R.M.; King's College London, United Kingdom

Schmitter, Amy; University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, New Mexico

Shelley, James R.; Augustana College, Rock Island, IL

Stagoll, Clifford; University of Warwick, Coventry, England

Tenenbaum, Sergio; University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM

Thompson, Dennis; Northampton, MA

Torell, Kurt; Lewis-Clark State College, Lewiston, ID

Turiano, Mark; Emory University, Atlanta, GA

Velasquez, Eduardo A.; Washington and Lee University, Lexington, VA

Vink, Anthony; The Netherlands

Weller, Eric J.; Skidmore College, Saratoga Springs, New York

Xiao, Yang; Berkeley, CA

Zakatistovs, Atis; Ottawa, Ontario, Canada

Zanardi, Paola; University of Ferrara, Italy